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      Integrative taxonomy and analysis of species richness patterns of nocturnal Darwin wasps of the genus Enicospilus Stephens (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ophioninae) in Japan

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          Abstract

          The predominantly tropical ophionine genus Enicospilus Stephens, 1835 is one of the largest genera of Darwin wasps ( Hymenoptera , Ichneumonidae ), with more than 700 extant species worldwide that are usually crepuscular or nocturnal and are parasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae. In the present study, the Japanese species of Enicospilus are revised using an integrative approach (combined morphology and DNA barcoding). On the basis of 3,110 specimens, 47 Enicospilus species are recognised in Japan, eight of which are new species ( E. acutus Shimizu, sp. nov., E. kunigamiensis Shimizu, sp. nov., E. limnophilus Shimizu, sp. nov., E. matsumurai Shimizu, sp. nov., E. pseudopuncticulatus Shimizu, sp. nov., E. sharkeyi Shimizu, sp. nov., E. takakuwai Shimizu, sp. nov., and E. unctus Shimizu, sp. nov.), seven are new records from Japan ( E. jilinensis Tang, 1990, E. laqueatus (Enderlein, 1921), E. multidens Chiu, 1954, stat. rev., E. puncticulatus Tang, 1990, E. stenophleps Cushman, 1937, E. vestigator (Smith, 1858), and E. zeugos Chiu, 1954, stat. rev.), 32 had already been recorded in Japan; three ( E. biharensis Townes, Townes & Gupta, 1961, E. flavicaput (Morley, 1912), and E. merdarius (Gravenhorst, 1829)) have been erroneously recorded from Japan based on misidentifications, and four names that were previously on the Japanese list are deleted through synonymy. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: E. vacuus Gauld & Mitchell, 1981, syn. nov. (= E. formosensis (Uchida, 1928)); E. multidens stat. rev.; E. striatus Cameron, 1899, syn. nov. = E. lineolatus (Roman, 1913), syn. nov. = E. uniformis Chiu, 1954, syn. nov. = E. flatus Chiu, 1954, syn. nov. = E. gussakovskii Viktorov, 1957, syn. nov. = E. striolatus Townes, Townes & Gupta, 1961, syn. nov. = E. unicornis Rao & Nikam, 1969, syn. nov. = E. unicornis Rao & Nikam, 1970, syn. nov. (= E. pungens (Smith, 1874)); E. iracundus Chiu, 1954, syn. nov. (= E. sakaguchii (Matsumura & Uchida, 1926)); E. sigmatoides Chiu, 1954, syn. nov. (= E. shikokuensis (Uchida, 1928)); E. yamanakai (Uchida, 1930), syn. nov. (= E. shinkanus (Uchida, 1928)); E. ranunculus Chiu, 1954, syn. nov. (= E. yezoensis (Uchida, 1928)); and E. zeugos stat. rev. = E. henrytownesi Chao & Tang, 1991, syn. nov. In addition, the following new regional and country records are also provided: E. flavocephalus (Kirby, 1900), E. puncticulatus , and E. vestigator from the Eastern Palaearctic region, E. laqueatus from the Eastern Palaearctic and Oceanic regions, and E. maruyamanus (Uchida, 1928) from the Oriental region; E. abdominalis (Szépligeti, 1906) from Nepal, E. flavocephalus from Laos, E. formosensis from Laos and Malaysia, E. insinuator (Smith, 1860) from Taiwan, E. maruyamanus from India and Philippines, E. nigronotatus Cameron, 1903, E. riukiuensis (Matsumura & Uchida, 1926), and E. sakaguchii from Indonesia, E. pungens from 14 countries (Australia, Bhutan, Brunei, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Taiwan), and E. yezoensis from South Korea. An identification key to all Japanese species of Enicospilus is proposed. Although 47 species are recognised in the present study, approximately 55 species could potentially be found in Japan based on ACE and Chao 1 estimators. The latitudinal diversity gradient of Enicospilus species richness is also tested in the Japanese archipelago based on the constructed robust taxonomic framework and extensive samples. Enicospilus species richness significantly increases towards the south, contrary to the ‘anomalous’ pattern of some other ichneumonid subfamilies.

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

            Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

              The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                10 November 2020
                : 990
                : 1-144
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory of Insect Biodiversity and Ecosystem Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kôbe University, Rokkôdaichô 1–1, Nada, Kôbe, Hyôgo 657–8501, Japan Kôbe University Kôbe Japan
                [2 ] DC and Overseas Challenge Program for Young Researchers, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tôkyô, Japan The Natural History Museum London United Kingdom
                [3 ] Depertment of Life Sciences, the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Tokyo Japan
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: So Shimizu ( parasitoidwasp.sou@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: B. Santos

                Article
                55542
                10.3897/zookeys.990.55542
                7674391
                So Shimizu, Gavin R. Broad, Kaoru Maeto

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Hymenoptera
                Ichneumonidae
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Identification key
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Asia
                Far East

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