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      AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

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          Abstract

          The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.

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          Most cited references 119

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          International experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale--a review of validation data and clinical results.

          More than 200 published studies from most medical settings worldwide have reported experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) which was specifically developed by Zigmond and Snaith for use with physically ill patients. Although introduced in 1983, there is still no comprehensive documentation of its psychometric properties. The present review summarizes available data on reliability and validity and gives an overview of clinical studies conducted with this instrument and their most important findings. The HADS gives clinically meaningful results as a psychological screening tool, in clinical group comparisons and in correlational studies with several aspects of disease and quality of life. It is sensitive to changes both during the course of diseases and in response to psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological intervention. Finally, HADS scores predict psychosocial and possibly also physical outcome.
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            Medical progress: Acromegaly.

             Shlomo Melmed (2006)
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              Organization of the human myostatin gene and expression in healthy men and HIV-infected men with muscle wasting.

              Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Mice and cattle with inactivating mutations of myostatin have marked muscle hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether myostatin regulates skeletal muscle growth in adult men and whether increased myostatin expression contributes to wasting in chronic illness. We examined the hypothesis that myostatin expression correlates inversely with fat-free mass in humans and that increased expression of the myostatin gene is associated with weight loss in men with AIDS wasting syndrome. We therefore cloned the human myostatin gene and cDNA and examined the gene's expression in the skeletal muscle and serum of healthy and HIV-infected men. The myostatin gene comprises three exons and two introns, maps to chromosomal region 2q33.2, has three putative transcription initiation sites, and is transcribed as a 3.1-kb mRNA species that encodes a 375-aa precursor protein. Myostatin is expressed uniquely in the human skeletal muscle as a 26-kDa mature glycoprotein (myostatin-immunoreactive protein) and secreted into the plasma. Myostatin immunoreactivity is detectable in human skeletal muscle in both type 1 and 2 fibers. The serum and intramuscular concentrations of myostatin-immunoreactive protein are increased in HIV-infected men with weight loss compared with healthy men and correlate inversely with fat-free mass index. These data support the hypothesis that myostatin is an attenuator of skeletal muscle growth in adult men and contributes to muscle wasting in HIV-infected men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                June 2008
                June 2008
                : 4
                : 3
                : 587-597
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Royal Gwent Hospital Newport, Gwent, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Michael R Graham Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom Tel +44 1443 482293 Fax +44 1443 482285 Email drgraham@ 123456glam.ac.uk
                Article
                2500251
                18827854
                © 2008 Graham et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                aas, performance, cosmesis, strength , growth hormone, insulin

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