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      Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae Endocarditis : A Study of 48 Patients

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          Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

          Although the sensitivity and specificity of the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) have been validated by investigators from Europe and the United States, several shortcomings of this schema remain. The Duke IE database contains records collected prospectively on >800 cases of definite and possible IE since 1984. Databases on echocardiograms and on patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at Duke University Medical Center are also maintained. Analyses of these databases, our experience with the Duke criteria in clinical practice, and analysis of the work of others have led us to propose the following modifications of the Duke schema. The category "possible IE" should be defined as having at least 1 major criterion and 1 minor criterion or 3 minor criteria. The minor criterion "echocardiogram consistent with IE but not meeting major criterion" should be eliminated, given the widespread use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Bacteremia due to S. aureus should be considered a major criterion, regardless of whether the infection is nosocomially acquired or whether a removable source of infection is present. Positive Q-fever serology should be changed to a major criterion.
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            New criteria for diagnosis of infective endocarditis: utilization of specific echocardiographic findings

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              Cat scratch disease in Connecticut. Epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of a new diagnostic test.

              Although cat scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in patients who have unexplained regional lymphadenopathy after encounters with cats, its epidemiology and the risk factors for disease are not clearly defined, and there is no generally accepted diagnostic test. We conducted a physician survey to identify cases of cat scratch disease occurring over a 13-month period in cat owners in Connecticut. We interviewed both the patients (or their parents) and controls matched for age who owned cats. Serum from the patients was tested for antibodies to Rochalimaea henselae with a new, indirect fluorescent-antibody test. We identified 60 patients with cat scratch disease and 56 age-matched subjects. Patients were more likely than controls to have at least one pet kitten 12 months old or younger (odds ratio, 15), to have been scratched or bitten by a kitten (odds ratio, 27), and to have had at least one kitten with fleas (odds ratio, 29). A conditional logistic-regression analysis found that in kitten-owning households, patients were more likely than controls to have been scratched or bitten by a cat or kitten (odds ratio, 12.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 150). Of 45 patients, 38 had serum samples with titers of 1:64 or higher for antibody to R. henselae, as compared with 4 of 112 samples from controls (P < 0.001). The positive predictive value of the serologic test was 91 percent. Of 48 serum samples from patients' cats, 39 were positive for antibodies to R. henselae, as compared with positive samples from 11 of 29 control cats (P < 0.001). Cat scratch disease is strongly associated with owning a kitten, and fleas may be involved in its transmission. The serologic test for rochalimaea may be useful diagnostically, and our results suggest an etiologic role for this genus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine
                Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0025-7974
                2001
                July 2001
                : 80
                : 4
                : 245-251
                Article
                10.1097/00005792-200107000-00003
                © 2001

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