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      Extraction of Aflatoxins from Liquid Foodstuff Samples with Polydopamine-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for HPLC-MS/MS Analysis

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          Abstract

          A facile magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of aflatoxins (AFs) from liquid samples was developed using polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PD-MNPs) as the adsorbent. PD-MNPs were prepared from amine-terminated MNPs and dopamine via an in situ oxidative self-polymerization approach. Under the selected MSPE conditions, extraction yields ranging from 59.3% for AF G 2 to 89.0% for AF B 1 were obtained with good repeatability. Coupled with HPLC-MS/MS quantification, the MSPE procedure serves not only for sample cleanup but also for AFs enrichment that is highly desired for trace analysis. The proposed MSPE-HPLC-MS/MS method had a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 0.00600 to 3.00 ng/mL aflatoxin and limits of detection of 0.0012 ng/mL for AF B 1, AF B 2, and AF G 1, and 0.0031 ng/mL for AF G 2.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses--an overview.

           Tom Richard (2007)
          Mycotoxins likely have existed for as long as crops have been grown but recognition of the true chemical nature of such entities of fungal metabolism was not known until recent times. Conjecturally, there is historical evidence of their presence back as far as the time reported in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Evidence of their periodic, historical occurrence exists until the recognition of aflatoxins in the early 1960s. At that time mycotoxins were considered as a storage phenomenon whereby grains becoming moldy during storage allowed for the production of these secondary metabolites proven to be toxic when consumed by man and other animals. Subsequently, aflatoxins and mycotoxins of several kinds were found to be formed during development of crop plants in the field. The determination of which of the many known mycotoxins are significant can be based upon their frequency of occurrence and/or the severity of the disease that they produce, especially if they are known to be carcinogenic. Among the mycotoxins fitting into this major group would be the aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin and certain ergot alkaloids. The diseases (mycotoxicoses) caused by these mycotoxins are quite varied and involve a wide range of susceptible animal species including humans. Most of these diseases occur after consumption of mycotoxin contaminated grain or products made from such grains but other routes of exposure exist. The diagnosis of mycotoxicoses may prove to be difficult because of the similarity of signs of disease to those caused by other agents. Therefore, diagnosis of a mycotoxicoses is dependent upon adequate testing for mycotoxins involving sampling, sample preparation and analysis.
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            Dopamine as a robust anchor to immobilize functional molecules on the iron oxide shell of magnetic nanoparticles.

            We report on the use of dopamine (DA) as a robust molecular anchor to link functional molecules to the iron oxide shell of magnetic nanoparticles. Using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as the functional molecule, we created a system with an M/Fe2O3-DA-NTA (M = Co or SmCo5.2) nanostructure, which possesses high stability and specificity for separating histidine-tagged proteins. The well-established biocompatibility of iron oxide and the robust covalent bonds between DA and Fe2O3 render this strategy attractive for constructing biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles containing iron oxide.
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              Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: a review.

              Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Agric Food Chem
                J. Agric. Food Chem
                jf
                jafcau
                Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
                American Chemical Society
                0021-8561
                1520-5118
                28 April 2015
                28 April 2014
                14 May 2014
                : 62
                : 19
                : 4261-4267
                Affiliations
                []Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University , 1400 Lynch Street, Jackson, Mississippi 39217, United States
                []Department of Biology, Jackson State University , 1400 Lynch Street, Jackson, Mississippi 39217, United States
                [§ ]Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , South Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu 610041, China
                Author notes
                [* ]E-mail: (Y.-M.L.) yiming.liu@ 123456jsums.edu . Tel.: 1-601-979-3491.
                [* ]E-mail: (X.L.) liaoxun@ 123456cib.ac.cn . Tel./Fax: +86 28 85229227.
                Article
                10.1021/jf501659m
                4301581
                24766417
                Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

                Funding
                National Institutes of Health, United States
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                jf501659m
                jf-2014-01659m

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