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      Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          While acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly reported following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT), the incidence and impact of AKI on mortality among patients undergoing HCT are not well described. We conducted this systematic review to assess the incidence and impact of AKI on mortality risk among patients undergoing HCT.

          Methods

          Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Databases were searched from database inceptions through August 2019 to identify studies assessing the incidence of AKI and mortality risk among adult patients who developed AKI following HCT. Random-effects and generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian–Laird were used to combine the effect estimates obtained from individual studies.

          Results

          We included 36 cohort studies with a total of 5144 patients undergoing HCT. Overall, the pooled estimated incidence of AKI and severe AKI (AKI Stage III) were 55.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 46.6–63.3%) and 8.3% (95% CI 6.0–11.4%), respectively. The pooled estimated incidence of AKI using contemporary AKI definitions (RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria) was 49.8% (95% CI 41.6–58.1%). There was no significant correlation between study year and the incidence of AKI (P = 0.12) or severe AKI (P = 0.97). The pooled odds ratios of 3-month mortality and 3-year mortality among patients undergoing HCT with AKI were 3.05 (95% CI 2.07–4.49) and 2.23 (95% CI 1.06–4.73), respectively.

          Conclusion

          The incidence of AKI among patients who undergo HCT remains high, and it has not changed over the years despite advances in medicine. AKI after HCT is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality.

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          Most cited references70

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          An assessment of the RIFLE criteria for acute renal failure in hospitalized patients.

          The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group published a consensus definition (the RIFLE criteria) for acute renal failure. We sought to assess the ability of the RIFLE criteria to predict mortality in hospital patients. Retrospective single-center study. University-affiliated hospital. All patients admitted to the study hospital between January 2000 and December 2002. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 15 yrs old, were on chronic dialysis, or had kidney transplant or if their length of hospital stay was <24 hrs. None. We included 20,126 patients. Mean age was 64 yrs, 14.7% of patients required intensive care unit admission, and hospital mortality was 8.0%. According to the RIFLE criteria, 9.1% of all patients were in the Risk category for acute renal failure, 5.2% were in the Injury category, and 3.7% were in the Failure category. There was an almost linear increase in hospital mortality from Normal to Failure (Normal, 4.4%; Risk, 15.1%; Injury, 29.2%; and Failure, 41.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that all RIFLE criteria were significantly predictive factors for hospital mortality, with an almost linear increase in odds ratios from Risk to Failure (odds ratios, Risk 2.5, Injury 5.4, Failure 10.1). The RIFLE criteria for acute renal failure classified close to 20% of our study patients as having some degrees of acute impairment in renal function and were useful in predicting their hospital mortality.
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            Veno-occlusive disease of the liver and multiorgan failure after bone marrow transplantation: a cohort study of 355 patients.

            To determine the incidence and clinical course of veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) after bone marrow transplantation and to analyze risk factors for severe VOD. Cohort study of 355 consecutive patients. A bone marrow transplantation center. Each patient was prospectively evaluated for VOD, and many risk factors for severe VOD were analyzed using logistic regression models. The relation of VOD to renal and cardiopulmonary failure was analyzed using time-dependent proportional hazards models. Veno-occlusive disease developed in 190 of 355 patients (54%; 95% CI, 48% to 59%): Fifty-four patients had severe VOD and 136 had mild or moderate VOD. Independent variables derived from a multivariate model for predicting severe VOD included elevated transaminase values before transplantation (relative risk, 4.6; P < 0.0001); vancomycin therapy during cytoreductive therapy (relative risk, 2.9; P = 0.003); cytoreductive therapy with a high-dose regimen (relative risk, 2.8; P = 0.01); acyclovir therapy before transplantation (relative risk, 4.8; P = 0.02); mismatched or unrelated donor marrow (relative risk, 2.4; P = 0.02); and previous radiation therapy to the abdomen (relative risk, 2.2; P = 0.04). Vancomycin therapy was a marker for persistent fever. Multiorgan failure was more frequent among patients with VOD and usually followed the onset of liver disease. Veno-occlusive disease, which developed in 54% of bone marrow transplant recipients, is frequently associated with renal and cardiopulmonary failure. Pretransplant transaminase elevations, use of high-dose cytoreductive therapy, and persistent fever during cytoreductive therapy are independent predictors of severe VOD.
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              A comparison of the RIFLE and AKIN criteria for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients.

              The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group has published a consensus definition/classification system for acute kidney injury (AKI) termed the RIFLE criteria. The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) group has recently proposed modifications to this system. It is currently unknown whether there are advantages between these criteria. We interrogated the Australian New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database (APD) for all adult admissions to 57 ICUs from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005. We compared the performance of the RIFLE and AKIN criteria for diagnosis and classification of AKI and for robustness of hospital mortality. We included 120 123 critically ill patients, of which 27.8% had a primary diagnosis of sepsis. We found only small differences (<1%) in the number of patients classified as having some degree of kidney injury using either the AKIN or RIFLE definition or classification systems. AKIN slightly increased the number of patients classified as Stage I injury (category R in RIFLE) (from 16.2 to 18.1%) but decreased the number of patients classified as having Stage II injury (category I in RIFLE) (13.6% versus 10.1%). The area under the ROC curve for hospital mortality was 0.66 for RIFLE and 0.67 for AKIN in all patients and it was 0.65 for both in septic patients. Compared to the RIFLE criteria, the AKIN criteria do not materially improve the sensitivity, robustness and predictive ability of the definition and classification of AKI in the first 24 h after admission to ICU.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                QJM: An International Journal of Medicine
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1460-2725
                1460-2393
                February 26 2020
                February 26 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216
                [2 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85701
                [4 ]Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216
                [5 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
                Article
                10.1093/qjmed/hcaa072
                7828586
                32101318
                c93a1faf-b6ca-4575-a724-b6cc620c39f5
                © 2020

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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