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      Hepatitis B Virus: Advances in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy

      , , , ,
      Clinical Microbiology Reviews
      American Society for Microbiology

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          SUMMARY

          Currently, despite the use of a preventive vaccine for several decades as well as the use of effective and well-tolerated viral suppressive medications since 1998, approximately 250 million people remain infected with the virus that causes hepatitis B worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the leading causes of liver cancer and overall mortality globally, surpassing malaria and tuberculosis. Linkage to care is estimated to be very poor both in developing countries and in high-income countries, such as the United States, countries in Western Europe, and Japan. In the United States, by CDC estimates, only one-third of HBV-infected patients or less are aware of their infection. Some reasons for these low rates of surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment include the asymptomatic nature of chronic hepatitis B until the very late stages, a lack of curative therapy with a finite treatment duration, a complex natural history, and a lack of knowledge about the disease by both care providers and patients. In the last 5 years, more attention has been focused on the important topics of HBV screening, diagnosis of HBV infection, and appropriate linkage to care. There have also been rapid clinical developments toward a functional cure of HBV infection, with novel compounds currently being in various phases of progress. Despite this knowledge, many of the professional organizations provide guidelines focused only on specific questions related to the treatment of HBV infection. This focus leaves a gap for care providers on the other HBV-related issues, which include HBV’s epidemiological profile, its natural history, how it interacts with other viral hepatitis diseases, treatments, and the areas that still need to be addressed in order to achieve HBV elimination by 2030. Thus, to fill these gaps and provide a more comprehensive and relevant document to regions worldwide, we have taken a global approach by using the findings of global experts on HBV as well as citing major guidelines and their various approaches to addressing HBV and its disease burden.

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          Most cited references210

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          Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide is a functional receptor for human hepatitis B and D virus

          Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-related diseases remain a major public health problem. Individuals coinfected with its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) have more severe disease. Cellular entry of both viruses is mediated by HBV envelope proteins. The pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein is a key determinant for receptor(s) binding. However, the identity of the receptor(s) is unknown. Here, by using near zero distance photo-cross-linking and tandem affinity purification, we revealed that the receptor-binding region of pre-S1 specifically interacts with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a multiple transmembrane transporter predominantly expressed in the liver. Silencing NTCP inhibited HBV and HDV infection, while exogenous NTCP expression rendered nonsusceptible hepatocarcinoma cells susceptible to these viral infections. Moreover, replacing amino acids 157–165 of nonfunctional monkey NTCP with the human counterpart conferred its ability in supporting both viral infections. Our results demonstrate that NTCP is a functional receptor for HBV and HDV. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00049.001
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            Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection.

            More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and survival strategies. This review assesses recent advances in our understanding of viral hepatitis, contrasts mechanisms of virus-host interaction in acute hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and outlines areas for future studies.
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              Nuclear HBx binds the HBV minichromosome and modifies the epigenetic regulation of cccDNA function.

              HBV cccDNA, the template for transcription of all viral mRNAs, accumulates in the nucleus of infected cells as a stable episome organized into minichromosomes by histones and non-histone viral and cellular proteins. Using a cccDNA-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based quantitative assay, we have previously shown that transcription of the HBV minichromosome is regulated by epigenetic changes of cccDNA-bound histones and that modulation of the acetylation status of cccDNA-bound H3/H4 histones impacts on HBV replication. We now show that the cellular histone acetyltransferases CBP, p300, and PCAF/GCN5, and the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and hSirt1 are all recruited in vivo onto the cccDNA. We also found that the HBx regulatory protein produced in HBV replicating cells is recruited onto the cccDNA minichromosome, and the kinetics of HBx recruitment on the cccDNA parallels the HBV replication. As expected, an HBV mutant that does not express HBx is impaired in its replication, and exogenously expressed HBx transcomplements the replication defects. p300 recruitment is severely impaired, and cccDNA-bound histones are rapidly hypoacetylated in cells replicating the HBx mutant, whereas the recruitment of the histone deacetylases hSirt1 and HDAC1 is increased and occurs at earlier times. Finally, HBx mutant cccDNA transcribes significantly less pgRNA. Altogether our results further support the existence of a complex network of epigenetic events that influence cccDNA function and HBV replication and identify an epigenetic mechanism (i.e., to prevent cccDNA deacetylation) by which HBx controls HBV replication.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                Clin Microbiol Reviews
                American Society for Microbiology
                0893-8512
                1098-6618
                March 18 2020
                February 26 2020
                : 33
                : 2
                Article
                10.1128/CMR.00046-19
                c93f1c48-cab5-404d-932e-5616cac24881
                © 2020
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://cmr.asm.org/content/33/2/e00046-19

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