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      Effect of the antiendotoxic agent, taurolidine, in the treatment of sepsis syndrome : A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

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          Most cited references 13

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          Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endotoxin administration.

          Cytokines, products of stimulated macrophages, are thought to mediate many host responses to bacterial infection, but increased circulating cytokine concentrations have not been detected consistently in infected patients. We measured plasma concentrations of circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (cachectin), interleukin-1 beta, and gamma interferon, together with physiologic and hormonal responses, in 13 healthy men after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (4 ng per kilogram of body weight) and during a control period of saline administration. Eight additional subjects received ibuprofen before receiving endotoxin or saline. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor were generally less than 35 pg per milliliter throughout the control period, but increased 90 to 180 minutes after endotoxin administration to mean peak concentrations of 240 +/- 70 pg per milliliter, as compared with 35 +/- 5 pg per milliliter after saline administration. Host responses were temporally associated with the increase in circulating tumor necrosis factor at 90 minutes, and the extent of symptoms, changes in white-cell count, and production of ACTH were temporally related to the peak concentration of tumor necrosis factor. Ibuprofen pretreatment did not prevent the rise in circulating tumor necrosis factor (mean peak plasma level, 170 +/- 70 pg per milliliter) but greatly attenuated the symptoms and other responses after endotoxin administration. Concentrations of circulating interleukin-1 beta and gamma interferon did not change after endotoxin administration. We conclude that the response to endotoxin is associated with a brief pulse of circulating tumor necrosis factor and that the resultant responses are effected through the cyclooxygenase pathway.
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            Prognosis in acute organ-system failure.

            This prospective study describes the current prognosis of patients in acute Organ System Failure (OSF). Objective definitions were developed for five OSFs, and then 5677 ICU admissions from 13 hospitals were monitored. The number and duration of OSF were linked to outcome at hospital discharge for each of the 2719 ICU patients (48%) who developed OSF. For all medical and most surgical admissions, a single OSF lasting more than 1 day resulted in a mortality rate approaching 40%. Among both medical and surgical patients, two OSFs for more than 1 day increased death rates to 60%. Advanced chronologic age increased both the probability of developing OSF and the probability of death once OSF occurred. Mortality for 99 patients with three or more OSFs persisting after 3 days was 98%. The two patients who survived were both young, in prior excellent health, and had severe but limited primary diseases. These results emphasize the high death rates associated with acute OSF and the rapidity with which mortality increases over time. The prognostic estimates provide reference data for physicians treating similar patients.
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              Multiple-Organ Failure

               R Jan A Goris (1985)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Critical Care Medicine
                Critical Care Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0090-3493
                1995
                June 1995
                : 23
                : 6
                : 1033-1039
                Article
                10.1097/00003246-199506000-00007
                © 1995

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