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      Increased Urinary Excretion of Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) in Patients with IgA Nephropathy: Tonsil Stimulation Enhances Urinary M-CSF Excretion


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          Upper respiratory tract infection including chronic tonsillitis is considered to be involved in the onset and/or the progression of IgA nephropathy. It is well known that deterioration of urinary findings occurs after episodes of upper respiratory tract infection in patients with IgA nephropathy. We previously showed that the expression of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is increased in the glomeruli of patients with IgA nephropathy and correlated with glomerular mesangial proliferation, suggesting that M-CSF plays an important role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. In the present study, we measured the serum and urinary concentrations of M-CSF in patients with IgA nephropathy associated with chronic tonsillitis. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the local provocation test of tonsils (mechanical tonsil stimulation) on the serum and urinary concentrations of M-CSF in the following three groups: (1) IgA nephropathy with severe mesangial proliferation, (2) IgA nephropathy with mild mesangial proliferation, and (3) patients with chronic tonsillitis without renal disease. The serum and urinary levels of M-CSF in the groups with severe and mild IgA nephropathy were significantly higher than those in the chronic tonsillitis group. The urinary M-CSF level but not the serum M-CSF level was positively correlated with the degrees of mesangial proliferation and glomerular M-CSF expression in the renal biopsy specimens. The urinary M-CSF concentration was significantly increased after tonsillitis stimulation in both mild and severe IgA nephropathy groups. Enhanced urinary excretion of M-CSF prolonged for 7 days after tonsil stimulation in the severe IgA nephropathy group; in contrast, the urinay M-CSF level was increased for only 2 days after tonsil stimulation in the mild IgA nephropathy group. The urinary M-CSF level was not changed in the chronic tonsillitis group after tonsil stimulation. The serum concentrations of M-CSF were not changed after tonsil stimulation in these three groups. Our present results suggest that tonsil stimulation contributes to the progression of IgA nephropathy via enhancement of glomerular production of M-CSF. The urinary excretion of M-CSF may be a useful predictor to evaluate the relevance of chronic tonsillitis to the disease and the indication of tonsillectomy in patients with IgA nephropathy.

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          Haemophilus parainfluenzae antigen and antibody in renal biopsy samples and serum of patients with IgA nephropathy

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            Eight Years of Follow-up - Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty Combined with Midline Glossectomy as a Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome

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              Allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: a new insight into its clinical efficacy and mechanism.

              Immunotherapy has been used widely for allergic diseases for more than 90 years but, in the opinion of many physicians, it is still a controversial form of treatment. The exact mechanism of action of immunotherapy remains to be determined. In the present study, we review the clinical efficacy and mechanism of action of immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. Recent double-blind placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. This therapeutic method has several advantages over conventional pharmacological treatment. Immunotherapy is inferior to pharmacological treatment in the short term, but in the long term it is substantially superior with respect to clinical efficacy. Immunotherapy has the potential permanently to alleviate the abnormal immunological responses of allergic rhinitis and to cure the nasal symptoms in the long term, even after discontinuation of injections. In addition, immunotherapy can prevent the onset of new sensitizations in allergic patients and may prevent the progression of rhinitis to asthma. It may therefore be possible for immunotherapy to alter the natural history of allergic sensitization and its clinical manifestation. These lines of clinical evidence could affect strategies of long-term therapy for allergic rhinitis. Modern molecular biological techniques have suggested that immunotherapy may affect allergen-induced TH responses or cytokine profiles, but there is no general agreement among investigators. However, IL-5 is likely to be the most important cytokine involved in the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy, and the suppression of allergen-induced IL-5 synthesis is most likely to be involved in the mechanism of immunotherapy. Our recent investigations, focusing on specific IgE and IgG4 responses, suggest that immunotherapy-induced changes in these specific antibodies play a clinical role and are involved in the mechanism of action of immunotherapy. It is probable that immunotherapy modulates and affects many different immunological and non-immunological phenomena to produce clinical efficacy and that clinical improvement is a consequence of different mechanisms over time.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 1999
                26 February 1999
                : 81
                : 3
                : 264-270
                aDepartment of Medicine III and bDepartment of Otolaryngology, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, cCellular Technology Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokushima, Japan
                45291 Nephron 1999;81:264–270
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45291
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/45291
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                IgA nephropathy,Macrophage-colony-stimulating factor,Tonsil stimulation


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