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      The Braak hypothesis in prion disease with a focus on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

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          Abstract

          This review considers whether the Braak hypothesis on protein propagation could account for prion disease, particularly Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In CJD, we can speculate on the pathological onset region to some degree in reference to the clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Although relating the Braak hypothesis to prion disease is not straightforward, the following could be proposed based on experimental and previously reported case observations. Pathogenic abnormal prion protein (PrP) deposition in the central nervous system (CNS) probably begins several months or years before clinical symptom onset, signifying the potentiality of a preclinical stage, similar to α-synuclein deposition in Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyloid-β/tau deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Unlike in PD and AD, the initial clinical symptoms of CJD vary by case, and thus the onset lesions must also be various and multiple in the CNS. Based on the pathological findings, particularly of PrP deposition extensively observed in the CNS gray matter of autopsy cases, it could be speculated that in the early disease stage, including the preclinical stage, abnormal PrP spreads from the onset region without directionality or hierarchy. Because each CNS region shows either vulnerability to or resistance against PrP deposition and pathological progression in prion disease, the lesion distribution shows system degeneration. Although pathologically combined cases of type 1 and type 2 PrP patterns are often recognized, type 1 and type 2 PrP patterns must never shift toward each other during the disease course; in other words, the original type of PrP deposition in each region presumably remains unchanged in each case. According to the several observations and corresponding speculations, there are at least partial similarities between prion disease and protein propagation, as explained by the Braak hypothesis, in terms of pathological lesion progression, but several noted contradictions preclude the hypothesis from comprehensively accounting for prion disease.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Neuropathology
          Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
          Wiley
          1440-1789
          0919-6544
          Oct 2020
          : 40
          : 5
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.
          Article
          10.1111/neup.12654
          32363728
          c9590705-5aa9-42b3-88c2-c649a18a41b3
          History

          Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease,Braak hypothesis,prion hypothesis,prion disease,Braak prion hypothesis

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