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      Taxonomic revision of the genus Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae) in Taiwan, China

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          A comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Glochidion J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. from Taiwan in China was carried out based on the examination of herbarium specimens and filed investigations. Eight species and three varieties are recognized, including a new species endemic to Taiwan, G. lanyuense Gang Yao & S.X. Luo, which is described and illustrated. Three names, viz. G. chademenosocarpum Hayata, G. kusukusense Hayata, and G. ovalifolium F.Y. Lu & Y.S. Hsu, are reduced to the new synonyms of G. rubrum Blume, G. lanceolatum Hayata, and G. ellipticum Wight, respectively. Two names, viz. G. lanceolatum Hayata and G. suishaense Hayata, are lectotypified here. A key to the Glochidion species in Taiwan is provided.

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          Phylogenetics of tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae; Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) based on nrITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data.

          Phylogenetic relationships within tribe Phyllantheae, the largest tribe of the family Phyllanthaceae, were examined with special emphasis on the large genus Phyllanthus. Nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data for 95 species of tribe Phyllantheae, including representatives of all subgenera of Phyllanthus (except Cyclanthera) and several hitherto unplaced infrageneric groups, were analyzed. Results for ITS and matK are generally concordant, although some species are placed differently in the plastid and ITS trees, indicating that hybridization/paralogy is involved. Results confirm paraphyly of Phyllanthus in its traditional circumscription with embedded Breynia, Glochidion, Reverchonia, and Sauropus. We favor the inclusion of the embedded taxa in Phyllanthus over further generic segregation. Monophyletic Phyllanthus comprises an estimated 1269 species, making it one of the "giant" genera. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is sister to all other species of Phyllanthus, and the genus appears to be of paleotropical origin. Subgenera Isocladus, Kirganelia, and Phyllanthus are polyphyletic, whereas other subgenera appear to be monophyletic. Monotypic Reverchonia is sister to P. abnormis, arborescent section Emblica to herbaceous Urinaria, free-floating aquatic P. fluitans to the weed P. caroliniensis, and the phyllocladous section Choretropsis to the delicate leafy P. claussenii. The unique branching architecture known as "phyllanthoid branching" found in most Phyllanthus taxa has been lost (and/or has been derived) repeatedly. Taxonomic divisions within Phyllantheae based on similar pollen morphology are confirmed, and related taxa share similar distributions. We recommend recognition of six clades at generic level: Flueggea s.l. (including Richeriella), Lingelsheimia, Margaritaria, Phyllanthus s.l. (including Breynia, Glochidion, Reverchonia, and Sauropus), P. diandrus, and Savia section Heterosavia.
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            Phylogenetic reconstruction prompts taxonomic changes in Sauropus, Synostemon and Breynia (Phyllanthaceae tribe Phyllantheae)

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              Phylogeny and proposed circumscription of Breynia, Sauropus and Synostemon (Phyllanthaceae), based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences

              Previous estimates of phylogeny in the Phyllanthaceae, Phyllantheae, have been hampered by undersampling of species from morphologically distinctive groups and using too few gene regions. To increase the phylogenetic resolution, sequences of two nuclear (ITS1–5.8S–ITS2) and Phytochrome C (PHYC)) and two non-coding chloroplast (accD–psaI, trnS–trnG) DNA markers were analysed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference with expanded sampling in Breynia, Glochidion, Sauropus and Synostemon. Our results supported reinstatement of Synostemon, previously included in Sauropus s.str., to generic rank, and provided evidence towards its future infrageneric classification. The results also indicated expansion of Breynia to include Sauropus s.str.; this combined monophyletic group consists of two strongly supported clades. Finally, we showed monophyly for Glochidion, which is sister to Phyllanthus subg. Phyllanthodendron, both still remaining undersampled. Morphological features characteristic of Breynia, Sauropus and Synostemon are discussed, as well as the desirability of dividing Phyllanthus into smaller genera.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                03 September 2020
                : 159
                : 137-159
                [1 ] College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China
                [2 ] Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 516650, China Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering Guangzhou China
                [3 ] College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, Guangdong, China South China Agricultural University Guangzhou China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Shixiao Luo ( luoshixiao@ 123456scbg.ac.cn )

                Academic editor: Alexander Sennikov

                Gang Yao, Zhu-Qiu Song, Bin-E Xue, Shi Shi, Yu-Ling Li, Shi-Xiao Luo

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences
                Research Article


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