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      Three Novel Mutations in the X-Linked Juvenile Retinoschisis (XLRS1) Gene in 6 Japanese Patients, 1 of Whom Had Turner’s Syndrome

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          We examined the XLRS1 gene for mutations in 6 Japanese patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis from a total of three families (5 males and 1 female), and from 3 obligate carrier females. DNA was amplified for all six coding exons of the XLRS1 gene with established primer pairs, and was sequenced directly. Each family had a different mutation, Trp96stop, 522+1g→a, and Lys167Asn in the XLRS1 gene. Affected patients had a hemizygous mutant allele while the obligate carrier females were heterozygotes who had both wild-type and mutant-type alleles. A proband female, who was the offspring of asymptomatic and nonconsanguineous parents, was found to have a chromosomal karyotype (45, X) that was indicative of Turner’s syndrome. These three different mutations in the XLRS1 gene have not been previously reported. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between these defects in the XLRS1 gene and the phenotypic expression of the disease.

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          Most cited references 7

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          A Colombian family with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis with three affected females finding of a frameshift mutation.

          X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal disease responsible for most cases of juvenile macular degeneration in males. Retinoschisis carrier females generally manifest no pathological symptoms. However, a large affected family from Colombia presented three affected females with typical RS phenotype similar to their 27 affected male relatives. Fundus examination as well as electroretinograms (ERG) indicate that the disease in these three affected females is as severe as in their affected male counterparts. DNA sequence analysis of the XLRS1 gene in the affected members of this family indicates a single base (G) deletion at the 639 base position (639delG). This deletion causes a frameshift during translation and results in a larger (235 amino acids) than normal peptide (224 amino acids) with grossly altered discoidin domain, which is considered critical for the cellular function of the protein. The co-segregation of this gene mutation with the RS phenotype and the RS carrier status as well as its complete absence in normal controls indicates that this genetic change is responsible for the RS pathology in this family. This (639delG) is a novel RS mutation and reported here for the first time. Furthermore, the analysis of the three affected females indicates that the RS pathology in affected females (a very rare occurrence) is due to XLRS1 mutations carried on both of their X chromosomes.
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            Severe juvenile retinoschisis associated with a 33-bps deletion in XLRS1 gene.

            X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a form of vitreoretinal dystrophy that is characterized by foveal and peripheral splitting of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pathognomonic of this disorder is a microcystic radiate appearance in the fovea. We encountered a 10 year-old, mildly retarded, Japanese boy, who exhibited a widely extended macular retinoschisis bilaterally. A break in the inner layer of the left eye mimicked a lamellar macular hole, which is a rare manifestation of the disease. Peripheral retinoschisis was absent. Only a few reports have described marked bilateral macular retinoschisis that involved entire posterior pole, while various other macular findings have been reported. This patient with a severe form of retinoschisis was found to harbor the deletion of 33 base pairs, including the boundary region of exon 3 and intron 3 in the XLRS1 gene.
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              X-Linked juvenile retinoschisis associated with a 4-base pair insertion at codon 55 of the XLRS1 gene.

              X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (RS) is a bilateral vitreoretinal disorder with no known cure. The gene responsible for the disease was recently isolated by positional cloning methods and a spectrum of mutations has been described in families with RS pathology. In this report, we screened six sporadic cases of RS for mutations in the RS gene to understand the etiology of isolated cases. Our extensive studies revealed a novel 4 bp insertion in one family and the remaining families did not show mutations in the RS gene. This mutation altered the reading frame including codon 55 resulting in nine aberrant amino acid residues. The unaffected mother did not contain this mutation. Additionally, it was not found in 60 normal control chromosomes, suggesting that the insertion mutation is disease related in the family analyzed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2003
                22 August 2003
                : 35
                : 5
                : 295-300
                Department of Ophthalmology, aUniversity Hospital of Tsukuba and bInstitute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
                72151 Ophthalmic Res 2003;35:295–300
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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