Problems in the original description of a species can have long-lasting consequences. This is the case of Plantago dielsiana and P. australis subsp. pretoana, two taxa referred to occur in Brazil by different authors. This work has the objective of clarifying the long standing misunderstanding about the occurrence of these two taxa in Brazil. Additionally, we revise the distribution and assess the conservation status of P. australis subsp. pretoana, an endangered, rather poorly understood subspecies endemic to southeastern Brazil.