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      What’s new in management and clearing of airway secretions in ICU patients? It is time to focus on cough augmentation

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      Intensive Care Medicine

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Diaphragm dysfunction on admission to the intensive care unit. Prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic impact-a prospective study.

          Diaphragmatic insults occurring during intensive care unit (ICU) stays have become the focus of intense research. However, diaphragmatic abnormalities at the initial phase of critical illness remain poorly documented in humans. To determine the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic impact of diaphragmatic impairment on ICU admission. Prospective, 6-month, observational cohort study in two ICUs. Mechanically ventilated patients were studied within 24 hours after intubation (Day 1) and 48 hours later (Day 3). Seventeen anesthetized intubated control anesthesia patients were also studied. The diaphragm was assessed by twitch tracheal pressure in response to bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (Ptr,stim). Eighty-five consecutive patients aged 62 (54-75) (median [interquartile range]) were evaluated (medical admission, 79%; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 54 [44-68]). On Day 1, Ptr,stim was 8.2 (5.9-12.3) cm H2O and 64% of patients had Ptr,stim less than 11 cm H2O. Independent predictors of low Ptr,stim were sepsis (linear regression coefficient, -3.74; standard error, 1.16; P = 0.002) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (linear regression coefficient, -0.07; standard error, 1.69; P = 0.03). Compared with nonsurvivors, ICU survivors had higher Ptr,stim (9.7 [6.3-13.8] vs. 7.3 [5.5-9.7] cm H2O; P = 0.004). This was also true for hospital survivors versus nonsurvivors (9.7 [6.3-13.5] vs. 7.8 [5.5-10.1] cm H2O; P = 0.004). Day 1 and Day 3 Ptr,stim were similar. A reduced capacity of the diaphragm to produce inspiratory pressure (diaphragm dysfunction) is frequent on ICU admission. It is associated with sepsis and disease severity, suggesting that it may represent another form of organ failure. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00786526).
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            Neurologic status, cough, secretions and extubation outcomes.

            To determine the degree to which neurologic function, cough peak flows and quantity of endotracheal secretions affected the extubation outcomes of patients who had passed a trial of spontaneous breathing (SBT). Prospective observational study. The medical intensive care unit of a 325-bed teaching hospital. Cough peak flow (CPF), endotracheal secretions and ability to complete four simple tasks were measured just before extubation in patients who had passed a SBT. Eighty-eight patients were studied; 14 failed their first trials of extubation. The CPF of patients who failed was lower than that of those who had a successful extubation (58.1+/-4.6 l/min vs 79.7+/-4.1 l/min, p=0.03) and those with CPF 60 l/min or less were nearly five times as likely to fail extubation compared to those with CPF higher than 60 l/min (risk ratio [RR]=4.8; 95% CI=1.4-16.2). Patients with secretions of more than 2.5 ml/h were three times as likely to fail (RR=3.0; 95% CI=1.0-8.8) as those with fewer secretions. Patients who were unable to complete four simple tasks (i.e. open eyes, follow with eyes, grasp hand, stick out tongue) were more than four times as likely to fail as those who completed the four commands (RR=4.3; 95% CI=1.8-10.4). There was synergistic interaction between these risk factors. The failure rate was 100% for patients with all three risk factors compared to 3% for those with no risk factors (RR=23.2; 95% CI=3.2-167.2). The presence of any two of the above risk factors had a sensitivity of 71 and specificity of 81% in predicting extubation failure. Patients who failed a trial of extubation were 3.8 times as likely to have any two risk factors compared to those who were successful. These simple, reproducible methods may provide a clinically useful approach to guiding the extubation of patients who have passed a SBT.
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              The decision to extubate in the intensive care unit.

              The day of extubation is a critical time during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Extubation is usually decided after a weaning readiness test involving spontaneous breathing on a T-piece or low levels of ventilatory assist. Extubation failure occurs in 10 to 20% of patients and is associated with extremely poor outcomes, including high mortality rates of 25 to 50%. There is some evidence that extubation failure can directly worsen patient outcomes independently of underlying illness severity. Understanding the pathophysiology of weaning tests is essential given their central role in extubation decisions, yet few studies have investigated this point. Because extubation failure is relatively uncommon, randomized controlled trials on weaning are underpowered to address this issue. Moreover, most studies evaluated patients at low risk for extubation failure, whose reintubation rates were about 10 to 15%, whereas several studies identified high-risk patients with extubation failure rates exceeding 25 or 30%. Strategies for identifying patients at high risk for extubation failure are essential to improve the management of weaning and extubation. Two preventive measures may prove beneficial, although their exact role needs confirmation: one is noninvasive ventilation after extubation in high-risk or hypercapnic patients, and the other is steroid administration several hours before extubation. These measures might help to prevent postextubation respiratory distress in selected patient subgroups.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Intensive Care Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                June 2019
                December 5 2018
                June 2019
                : 45
                : 6
                : 865-868
                Article
                10.1007/s00134-018-5484-2
                © 2019

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