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Synthesis and Characterizations of Novel Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe-Oxides Based Ceramic Nanocrystals and Flexible Film of Polydimethylsiloxane Composite with Improved Mechanical and Dielectric Properties for Sensors

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      Armalcolite, a rare ceramic mineral and normally found in the lunar earth, was synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. The in situ phase-changed novel ceramic nanocrystals of Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe based oxide (CMTFO x), their chemical reactions and bonding with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and microscopy. Water absorption of all the CMTFO x was high. The lower dielectric loss tangent value (0.155 at 1 MHz) was obtained for the ceramic sintered at 1050 °C (S1050) and it became lowest for the S1050/PDMS nanocomposite (0.002 at 1 MHz) film, which was made by spin coating at 3000 rpm. The excellent flexibility (static modulus ≈ 0.27 MPa and elongation > 90%), viscoelastic property (tanδ = E″/E′: 0.225) and glass transition temperature (T g: −58.5 °C) were obtained for S1050/PDMS film. Parallel-plate capacitive and flexible resistive humidity sensors have been developed successfully. The best sensing performance of the present S1050 (3000%) and its flexible S1050/PDMS composite film (306%) based humidity sensors was found to be at 100 Hz, better than conventional materials.

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          Spectral and other physicochemical properties of submicron powders of hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), goethite (α-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH)


            Author and article information

            [1 ]Centre for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; ayanbabu@ (A.M.); hanie_nadia@ (H.N.S.)
            [2 ]Department of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; nabilafarhana.shah@ (N.F.A.S.); zamrir@ (Z.R.)
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: ashisbidyarthi@ (A.T.); prsumit@ or prsumit@ (S.P.); azuan@ (N.A.A.O.); Tel.: +603-7967-5200 (A.T. & S.P. & N.A.A.O.); Fax: +603-7956-1378 (A.T. & S.P. & N.A.A.O.)
            Role: Academic Editor
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            27 February 2016
            March 2016
            : 16
            : 3
            26927116 4813867 10.3390/s16030292 sensors-16-00292
            © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (



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