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      Antibiotics used most commonly to treat animals in Europe

      research-article
      , DVM 1 , , BPharm 2 , , PhD, MSc 3 , , PhD, FRCPath 2
      The Veterinary Record
      BMJ Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain an insight into European prescribing of antibiotics for animals, in particular to highlight the diseases for which antibiotics are most commonly said to be prescribed and which different classes, including human critically important antibiotics (CIAs). The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Many older antibiotics (eg, penicillins, tetracyclines) are cited most frequently as the prescribed classes to treat the main food producing species. The frequency of citation of non-CIAs predominates. CIAs are mostly frequently cited to be prescribed for: urinary diseases in cats (62 per cent), respiratory diseases in cattle (45 per cent), diarrhoea in cattle and pigs (respectively 29 per cent and 34 per cent), locomotion disorders in cattle (31 per cent), postpartum dysgalactia syndrome complex in pigs (31 per cent) and dental disease in dogs (36 per cent). Clear ‘preferences’ between countries can be observed between antibiotic classes. The use of national formularies and guidance helps to drive responsible use of antibiotics and can significantly reduce the extent of use of CIAs. A more widespread introduction of veterinary practice antibiotic prescribing policies and monitoring obedience to these should ensure more widespread compliance with responsible use guidelines.

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          Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe

          The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Responses indicate no single information source is universally considered critical, though training, published literature and experience were the most important. Factors recorded which most strongly influenced prescribing behaviour were sensitivity tests, own experience, the risk for antibiotic resistance developing and ease of administration. Most practitioners usually take into account responsible use warnings. Antibiotic sensitivity testing is usually performed where a treatment failure has occurred. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of sensitivity testing at the level of types of practitioners and country. The responses indicate a need to improve sensitivity tests and services, with the availability of rapid and cheaper testing being key factors.
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            The broader context of antibiotic resistance: zinc feed supplementation of piglets increases the proportion of multi-resistant Escherichia coli in vivo.

            Following the Europe-wide ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, feed supplementation with zinc has increased in livestock breeding. In addition to possible beneficial effects on animal health, feed supplementation with heavy metals is known to influence the gut microbiota and might promote the spread of antimicrobial resistance via co-selection or other mechanisms. As Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production and often displays multi-resistant phenotypes, we set out to investigate the influence of zinc feed additives on the composition of the E. coli populations in vivo focusing on phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance. In a piglet feeding trial, E. coli were isolated from ileum and colon digesta of high dose zinc-supplemented (2500ppm) and background dose (50ppm) piglets (control group). The E. coli population was characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) for the determination of the phylogenetic background. Phenotypic resistance screening via agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration testing was followed by detection of resistance genes for selected clones. We observed a higher diversity of E. coli clones in animals supplemented with zinc compared to the background control group. The proportion of multi-resistant E. coli was significantly increased in the zinc group compared to the control group (18.6% vs. 0%). For several subclones present both in the feeding and the control group we detected up to three additional phenotypic and genotypic resistances in the subclones from the zinc feeding group. Characterization of these subclones suggests an increase in antimicrobial resistance due to influences on plasmid uptake by zinc supplementation, questioning the reasonability of zinc feed additives as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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              Antimicrobial usage in dogs and cats in first opinion veterinary practices in the UK.

              To provide baseline data on patterns of antimicrobial usage in dogs and cats through the analysis of data stored in electronic practice management systems. Clinical data from 11 first opinion veterinary practices were extracted for the year 2007. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to assess the usage of antimicrobials. Widespread usage of systemic broad-spectrum antimicrobials was observed. Antimicrobials most frequently used in both species were potentiated amoxicillin (44·4% and 46.1% in cats and dogs, respectively) and amoxicillin (14·3% and 20·7%). Cephalexin (13·4%) and cefovecin (15·0%) were also commonly used in dogs and cats, respectively. Systemic critically important antimicrobials in human medicine were widely used in dogs (60·5%) and cats (82·7%). Topical antimicrobials used in both species included fusidic acid (48·4% and 54·8%), framycetin (20·4% and 13·4%), polymyxin B (12·6% and 9·3%) and neomycin (6·5% and 6·6%). Inappropriate usage of broad-spectrum antimicrobials may contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance and loss of efficacy of antimicrobials in veterinary settings. Data recorded in practice management systems were demonstrated to be a practical source for monitoring antimicrobial usage in pets. © 2011 Royal Veterinary College.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vet Rec
                Vet. Rec
                vetrec
                veterinaryrecord
                The Veterinary Record
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                0042-4900
                2042-7670
                4 October 2014
                4 June 2014
                : 175
                : 13
                : 325
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Federation of Veterinarians of Europe, Avenue Tervueren 12, Brussels 1040, Belgium
                [2 ]Veterinary Medicines Directorate, Woodham Lane New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3LS, UK
                [3 ]Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines, Brno, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                E-mail for correspondence: nancy@ 123456fve.org

                Provenance: not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

                Article
                vetrec-2014-102462
                10.1136/vr.102462
                4215272
                24899065
                c984ce10-0c02-4c3f-bbcb-26a0d832f780
                British Veterinary Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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                : 1 May 2014
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                Veterinary medicine

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