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      Outcomes of Stage 3–5 Chronic Kidney Disease before End-Stage Renal Disease at a Single Center in Taiwan

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          Background: Taiwan has the highest incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world, but little is known about the outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) before ESRD in Taiwan. This study investigated the rate of renal progression and predictors for ESRD and death in a prospective cohort of patients under usual nephrologic care at a single center. Methods: A total of 433 patients at CKD stage 3–5 short of dialysis were recruited from nephrology clinics. Patients were monitored for up to 36 months or until ESRD, death or loss to follow-up. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease abbreviated formula. Results: At baseline, mean age was 65.6 years, 61.7% were male, 33.3% were diabetic and 29.1% had cardiovascular diseases (CVD). At the end of follow-up, 123 patients (28.4%) had advanced to ESRD and 41 (9.5%) had died. Mean annual declines in GFR were 2.24, 4.22, and 3.23 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> for stages 3, 4, and 5, respectively. By Cox regression model, patients with CVD, lower BMI and higher systolic BP were more likely to develop ESRD. Older patients with CVD and lower systolic BP were more likely to die. Conclusion: In this CKD cohort, patients were more likely to develop ESRD than cardiovascular death. The rate of GFR decline and predictors of ESRD were comparable to those reported in Western countries. Thus, the high incidence of ESRD in Taiwan may be attributed, at least in part, to lower cardiovascular mortality.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Angiotensin-receptor blockade versus converting-enzyme inhibition in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

          Few studies have directly compared the renoprotective effects of angiotensin II-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in persons with type 2 diabetes. In this prospective, multicenter, double-blind, five-year study, we randomly assigned 250 subjects with type 2 diabetes and early nephropathy to receive either the angiotensin II-receptor blocker telmisartan (80 mg daily, in 120 subjects) or the ACE inhibitor enalapril (20 mg daily, in 130 subjects). The primary end point was the change in the glomerular filtration rate (determined by measuring the plasma clearance of iohexol) between the baseline value and the last available value during the five-year treatment period. Secondary end points included the annual changes in the glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine level, urinary albumin excretion, and blood pressure; the rates of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events; and the rate of death from all causes. After five years, the change in the glomerular filtration rate was -17.5 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (where the minus sign denotes a decrement) in the telmisartan-treated subjects, as compared with -15.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 in the enalapril-treated subjects; the treatment difference was thus -2.6 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, -7.1 to 2.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2)[corrected] The lower boundary of the confidence interval, in favor of enalapril, was greater than the predefined margin of -10.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, indicating that telmisartan was not inferior to enalapril. The effects of the two agents on the secondary end points were not significantly different after five years. Telmisartan is not inferior to enalapril in providing long-term renoprotection in persons with type 2 diabetes. These findings do not necessarily apply to persons with more advanced nephropathy, but they support the clinical equivalence of angiotensin II-receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors in persons with conditions that place them at high risk for cardiovascular events. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Association between body mass index and CKD in apparently healthy men.

            Overweight and obesity are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and decline in kidney function in individuals with existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conversely, their association with the development of CKD is less clear. We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk for CKD in a cohort of 11,104 initially healthy men who participated in the Physicians' Health Study and provided a blood sample after 14 years. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height. We estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by using the abbreviated equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study and defined CKD as GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ( 26.6 kg/m2) had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.76; P trend <0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. We found similar associations by using different categories of BMI. Compared with men who remained within a +/-5% range of their baseline BMI, those who reported a BMI increase greater than 10% had a significant increase in risk for CKD (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.53). In this large cohort of initially healthy men, BMI was associated significantly with increased risk for CKD after 14 years. Strategies to decrease CKD risk might include prevention of overweight and obesity.
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              Epidemiological features of CKD in Taiwan.

              The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Taiwan is the highest in the world. However, epidemiological features of earlier chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been investigated. Since implementation of the National Health Insurance Program in 1995, more than 96% of the population in Taiwan has been enrolled. A nationally representative cohort of 200,000 individuals randomly sampled from the National Health Insurance enrollees was followed up from 1996 to 2003. Clinical conditions were defined by using diagnostic codes. The prevalence and incidence of clinically recognized CKD were assessed. We also identified risk factors associated with the development of CKD. The prevalence of clinically recognized CKD increased from 1.99% in 1996 to 9.83% in 2003. The overall incidence rate during 1997 to 2003 was 1.35/100 person-years. The multivariate model indicates that age is a key predictor of CKD, with an odds ratio of 13.95 for the group aged 75-plus years compared with the group younger than 20 years. Other factors associated with increased risk for the development of CKD include diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and female sex. The prevalence and incidence of CKD in Taiwan are relatively high compared with other countries. Our finding provides a reasonable explanation for the subsequent epidemic of ESRD in Taiwan. Further study is needed to identify the entire burden of CKD and the effectiveness of risk-factor modification.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                August 2008
                25 July 2008
                : 109
                : 3
                : c109-c118
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, and bDepartment of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
                145453 Nephron Clin Pract 2008;109:c109
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 37, Pages: 1
                Original Paper


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