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      UPDATE ON FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 23 IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

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      , MD, MMSc
      Kidney international

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that affects millions of people worldwide. Presence of CKD predisposes individuals to high risks of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Disordered phosphate homeostasis with elevated circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an early and pervasive complication of CKD. CKD is likely the most common cause of chronically elevated FGF23 levels, and the clinical condition in which levels are most markedly elevated. Although increases in FGF23 levels help maintain serum phosphate in the normal range in CKD, prospective studies in populations of pre-dialysis CKD, incident and prevalent end-stage renal disease, and kidney transplant recipients demonstrate that elevated FGF23 levels are independently associated with progression of CKD and development of cardiovascular events and mortality. It was originally thought that these observations were driven by elevated FGF23 acting as a highly sensitive biomarker of toxicity due to phosphate. However, FGF23 itself has now been shown to mediate “off-target,” direct, end-organ toxicity in the heart, which suggests that elevated FGF23 may be a novel mechanism of adverse outcomes in CKD. This report reviews recent advances in FGF23 biology relevant to CKD, the classical effects of FGF23 on mineral homeostasis, and the studies that established FGF23 excess as a biomarker and novel mechanism of cardiovascular disease. The report concludes with a critical review of the effects of different therapeutic strategies targeting FGF23 reduction and how these might be leveraged in a future randomized trial aimed at improving outcomes in CKD.

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          Most cited references134

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          Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease.

          Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus metabolism and is a strong predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. FGF23 is thought to be an early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We measured FGF23 in baseline samples from 3879 patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which is a diverse cohort of patients with CKD stage 2-4. Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence, FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels.
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            Fibroblast growth factor 23 and risks of mortality and end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

            A high level of the phosphate-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease, but little is known about its relationship with adverse outcomes in the much larger population of patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To evaluate FGF-23 as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. A prospective study of 3879 participants with chronic kidney disease stages 2 through 4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort between June 2003 and September 2008. All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease. At study enrollment, the mean (SD) estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 42.8 (13.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and the median FGF-23 level was 145.5 RU/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 96-239 reference unit [RU]/mL). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR, 2.5-4.4 years), 266 participants died (20.3/1000 person-years) and 410 reached end-stage renal disease (33.0/1000 person-years). In adjusted analyses, higher levels of FGF-23 were independently associated with a greater risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], per SD of natural log-transformed FGF-23, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.7). Mortality risk increased by quartile of FGF-23: the HR was 1.3 (95% CI, 0.8-2.2) for the second quartile, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.3) for the third quartile, and 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.1) for the fourth quartile. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 was independently associated with significantly higher risk of end-stage renal disease among participants with an estimated GFR between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 1.3 per SD of FGF-23 natural log-transformed FGF-23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.6) and 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or higher (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), but not less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Elevated FGF-23 is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease in patients with relatively preserved kidney function and for mortality across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease.
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              Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

              Vascular calcification is a common finding in atherosclerosis and a serious problem in diabetic and uremic patients. Because of the correlation of hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification, the ability of extracellular inorganic phosphate levels to regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell (HSMC) culture mineralization in vitro was examined. HSMCs cultured in media containing normal physiological levels of inorganic phosphate (1.4 mmol/L) did not mineralize. In contrast, HSMCs cultured in media containing phosphate levels comparable to those seen in hyperphosphatemic individuals (>1.4 mmol/L) showed dose-dependent increases in mineral deposition. Mechanistic studies revealed that elevated phosphate treatment of HSMCs also enhanced the expression of the osteoblastic differentiation markers osteocalcin and Cbfa-1. The effects of elevated phosphate on HSMCs were mediated by a sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPC), as indicated by the ability of the specific NPC inhibitor phosphonoformic acid, to dose dependently inhibit phosphate-induced calcium deposition as well as osteocalcin and Cbfa-1 gene expression. With the use of polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analyses, the NPC in HSMCs was identified as Pit-1 (Glvr-1), a member of the novel type III NPCs. These data suggest that elevated phosphate may directly stimulate HSMCs to undergo phenotypic changes that predispose to calcification and offer a novel explanation of the phenomenon of vascular calcification under hyperphosphatemic conditions. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                0323470
                5428
                Kidney Int
                Kidney Int.
                Kidney international
                0085-2538
                1523-1755
                27 April 2012
                23 May 2012
                October 2012
                01 April 2013
                : 82
                : 7
                : 737-747
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to: Myles Wolf, MD, MMSc, 1120 NW 14 th St., Miami, FL 33136, Telephone: 305-243-7760, mwolf2@ 123456med.miami.edu
                Article
                NIHMS371782
                10.1038/ki.2012.176
                3434320
                22622492
                c994f32f-8fac-4e0b-9802-5e9778790836
                History
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases : NIDDK
                Award ID: R01 DK081374 || DK
                Funded by: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases : NIDDK
                Award ID: R01 DK076116 || DK
                Categories
                Article

                Nephrology
                Nephrology

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