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Impacts of Salinity Intrusion in Community Health: A Review of Experiences on Drinking Water Sodium from Coastal Areas of Bangladesh

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      Abstract

      Increasing salt intake has substantial negative impacts on human health and well-being. This article focused on the construction of Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework for drinking water sodium (DWS) followed by a review on the published studies regarding salinity intrusion, DWS, and their effects on health perspectives in Bangladesh. Saline water is an important factor for hypertension or high blood pressure in the coastal areas. DWS can also lead women, especially pregnant women, to an increased risk of (pre)eclampsia, hypertension, as well as infant mortality. Several interventions, such as rainwater harvesting, pond sand filter (PSF) system, managed aquifer recharge (MAR), and pilot scale solar-powered desalination plants, such as reverse osmosis (RO), were reviewed on the context of their effectiveness in controlling drinking water sodium. Although rainwater consumption has the positive impact of low or no sodium intake, it still possesses negative impacts from not having vital minerals. A steady increment in sodium concentration through the span of the dry season was observed in MAR. It is, subsequently, important to increase awareness on DWS intake by providing and adopting correct technological interventions and training communities on the maintenance of the adaptive measures.

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      Most cited references 45

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      Seawater intrusion processes, investigation and management: Recent advances and future challenges

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        Drinking Water Salinity and Maternal Health in Coastal Bangladesh: Implications of Climate Change

        Background: Drinking water from natural sources in coastal Bangladesh has become contaminated by varying degrees of salinity due to saltwater intrusion from rising sea levels, cyclone and storm surges, and upstream withdrawal of freshwater. Objective: Our objective was to estimate salt intake from drinking water sources and examine environmental factors that may explain a seasonal excess of hypertension in pregnancy. Methods: Water salinity data (1998–2000) for Dacope, in rural coastal Bangladesh, were obtained from the Centre for Environment and Geographic Information System in Bangladesh. Information on drinking water sources, 24-hr urine samples, and blood pressure was obtained from 343 pregnant Dacope women during the dry season (October 2009 through March 2010). The hospital-based prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was determined for 969 pregnant women (July 2008 through March 2010). Results: Average estimated sodium intakes from drinking water ranged from 5 to 16 g/day in the dry season, compared with 0.6–1.2 g/day in the rainy season. Average daily sodium excretion in urine was 3.4 g/day (range, 0.4–7.7 g/day). Women who drank shallow tube-well water were more likely to have urine sodium > 100 mmol/day than women who drank rainwater [odds ratio (OR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–3.80]. The annual hospital prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was higher in the dry season (OR = 12.2%; 95% CI, 9.5–14.8) than in the rainy season (OR = 5.1%; 95% CI, 2.91–7.26). Conclusions: The estimated salt intake from drinking water in this population exceeded recommended limits. The problem of saline intrusion into drinking water has multiple causes and is likely to be exacerbated by climate change–induced sea-level rise.
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          Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

           Hugh Brammer (2014)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
            [2 ]Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan; secbondad@ 123456gmail.com
            [3 ]Climate Change Programme, BRAC, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh; bodruddoza.env12@ 123456gmail.com
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: mashura926@ 123456juniv.edu (M.S.); rahmanmm@ 123456juniv.edu (M.M.R.); Tel.: +88-01535704505 (M.S.); +88-01717514833 (M.M.R.)
            Journal
            Healthcare (Basel)
            Healthcare (Basel)
            healthcare
            Healthcare
            MDPI
            2227-9032
            22 March 2019
            March 2019
            : 7
            : 1
            30909429
            6473225
            10.3390/healthcare7010050
            healthcare-07-00050
            © 2019 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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