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      The Influence of Low to Moderate Myopia on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer as Assessed by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Variable Corneal Compensator

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To evaluate the influence of different degrees of myopia on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with variable corneal compensator (VCC) in healthy eyes. Methods: One hundred and seventy-four healthy age-matched subjects with low to high myopic and emmetropic eyes underwent RNFL measurement by means of GDxVCC. The GDx parameters included in the analysis were: Temporal-superior-nasal-inferior thickness (TSNIT) average, Superior average, Inferior average, TSNIT standard deviation, Inter-eye symmetry, NFI, Symmetry, Superior ratio, Inferior ratio, Superior/nasal, Maximum modulation, Superior maximum, Inferior maximum, Ellipse modulation, Normalized superior area, Normalized inferior area, Ellipse standard deviation, Ellipse average. The mean value of each SLP parameter of myopic eyes was compared with the mean value of the same parameter of emmetropic eyes. Results: Mean myopia was 3.9 ± 1.5 dpt (range: –2 to –8.25 dpt). TNSIT average was higher in myopic group (p = 0.0111), together with Superior average (p = 0.0244), Symmetry (p < 0.0001) and Ellipse average (p = 0.0111). Two ratio parameters, Superior ratio and Inferior ratio, were higher in emmetropic eyes (p = 0.0179 in both cases). In both the myopic and the emmetropic group, all the SLP assessments of the RNFL fell within the normal range, according to the GDx database. Conclusions: Low to high myopia is not related to clinically relevant variations of SLP parameters, as assessed with GDx-VCC.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The relationship between glaucoma and myopia

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            Refractive error and glaucoma.

            To study the association between refractive error, glaucoma damage and IOP in a large population. We examined 32,918 citizens of the city of Malmö, Sweden, 57-79 years of age, searching for individuals with undetected glaucoma. Refraction was measured with autorefractors. Glaucoma damage was defined as reproducible visual field defects with the Humphrey Full Threshold 24-2 program. Glaucoma prevalence was clearly associated with refractive state, increasing gradually with increasing myopia. This was seen both in males and females and persisted over the full age range. Glaucoma was significantly more common in myopic than in hyperopic eyes with low IOP readings (p=0.024). The overrepresentation of glaucoma in myopic eyes declined with increasing IOP and no relationship was observed in eyes with IOP > or =31 mmHg. In this large population, the prevalence of glaucoma increased with increasing myopia. The association between myopia and glaucoma was strong at lower IOP levels, and weakened gradually with increasing IOP. Our findings indicate that myopia is an important risk factor for glaucoma and particularly for normal tension glaucoma.
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              Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer.

              A retinal laser ellipsometer has been developed by coupling a Fourier ellipsometer to a laser scanning system. The instrument has been used to assess the origin and the amount of change in the state of polarization of a laser beam that has double passed the retina around the optic nerve head of postmortemhuman eyes. Eight eyes with no history of glaucoma were studied. At 200 points around the optic nerve head of each eye the Mueller matrices of the retina were examined for the amount of retardation, the orientation of the optic axis, and the amount of dichroism. The degree of polarization preservation of the detected light varied between 50% and 87%. Little dichroism was found, and there was no obvious correlation to the physical arrangement of any retinal structure. However, there was a substantial amount of linear uniaxial birefringence with the optic axis perpendicular to the incident laser beam. Furthermore the calculated optic axis direction showed a strong correlation with the physical orientation of the radial symmetrically arranged retinal nerve fiber axons around the optic nerve head. The local distribution of the corresponding retardation values showed two maxima that coincided with the areas of the thickest retinal nerve fiber layer. These results support the hypothesis that the thickness of the form birefringent retinal nerve fiber layer can be assessed by ellipsometric methods.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2007
                April 2007
                20 April 2007
                : 221
                : 3
                : 190-194
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
                Article
                99300 Ophthalmologica 2007;221:190–194
                10.1159/000099300
                17440282
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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