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      Resistance of the Internal Mammary Artery to Restenosis: A Histomorphologic Study of Various Porcine Arteries

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts is much less pronounced than in other arteries and venous grafts. The aim of the study was to test whether various arteries respond differently to dilatation. Methods: PTA of the IMA, carotid, renal and circumflex coronary (RCx) arteries was performed in 9 pigs (balloon to artery ratio of 1:1.5). After 8 weeks, angiography was repeated and vessels prepared for histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was done to examine proliferative activity (Ki67) and to identify the vasa vasorum of the adventitia (F VIII-RA). Results: The intima-media ratio after PTA was lowest in the IMA (0.06), followed by the carotid (0.27) and renal arteries (0.49) and the RCx (0.69). Proliferation of the intima was seen at 287° of the vessel circumference in the RCx, at 286° in the renal and at 166° in the carotid artery. No proliferative activity was seen in the IMA. The intima-adventitia ratio was lower in the IMA than in the RCx and renal arteries (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intima proliferation after PTA varies between the different vessels, with best results seen in the IMA. There are differences in remodeling after PTA between muscular, muscular/elastic and elastic arteries.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Vascular wall resident progenitor cells: a source for postnatal vasculogenesis.

          Here, we report the existence of endothelial precursor (EPC) and stem cells in a distinct zone of the vascular wall that are capable to differentiate into mature endothelial cells, hematopoietic and local immune cells, such as macrophages. This zone has been identified to be localized between smooth muscle and adventitial layer of human adult vascular wall. It predominantly contains CD34-positive (+) but CD31-negative (-) cells, which also express VEGFR2 and TIE2. Only few cells in this zone of the vascular wall are positive for CD45. In a ring assay using the fragments of human internal thoracic artery (HITA), we show here that the CD34+ cells of the HITA-wall form capillary sprouts ex vivo and are apparently recruited for capillary formation by tumor cells. New vessels formed by these vascular wall resident EPCs express markers for angiogenically activated endothelial cells, such as CEACAM1, and also for mature endothelial cells, such as VE-cadherin or occludin. Vascular wall areas containing EPCs are found in large and middle sized arteries and veins of all organs studied here. These data suggest the existence of a ;vasculogenic zone' in the wall of adult human blood vessels, which may serve as a source for progenitor cells for postnatal vasculogenesis, contributing to tumor vascularization and local immune response.
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            Sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents for coronary revascularization.

            Sirolimus-eluting stents and paclitaxel-eluting stents, as compared with bare-metal stents, reduce the risk of restenosis. It is unclear whether there are differences in safety and efficacy between the two types of drug-eluting stents. We conducted a randomized, controlled, single-blind trial comparing sirolimus-eluting stents with paclitaxel-eluting stents in 1012 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (death from cardiac causes, myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization of the target lesion) by nine months. Follow-up angiography was completed in 540 of 1012 patients (53.4 percent). The two groups had similar baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics. The rate of major adverse cardiac events at nine months was 6.2 percent in the sirolimus-stent group and 10.8 percent in the paclitaxel-stent group (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.86; P=0.009). The difference was driven by a lower rate of target-lesion revascularization in the sirolimus-stent group than in the paclitaxel-stent group (4.8 percent vs. 8.3 percent; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.93; P=0.03). Rates of death from cardiac causes were 0.6 percent in the sirolimus-stent group and 1.6 percent in the paclitaxel-stent group (P=0.15); the rates of myocardial infarction were 2.8 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively (P=0.49); and the rates of angiographic restenosis were 6.6 percent and 11.7 percent, respectively (P=0.02). As compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents, the use of sirolimus-eluting stents results in fewer major adverse cardiac events, primarily by decreasing the rates of clinical and angiographic restenosis. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Paclitaxel balloon coating, a novel method for prevention and therapy of restenosis.

              Drug-eluting stents have shown promising antirestenotic effects in clinical trials. Non-stent-based local delivery of antiproliferative drugs may offer additional flexibility and also reach vessel areas beyond the immediate stent coverage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a novel method of local drug delivery based on angioplasty balloons. Stainless steel stents (n=40; diameter, 3.0 to 3.5 mm; length, 18 mm) were implanted in the left anterior descending and circumflex coronary arteries of domestic pigs. Both conventional uncoated and 3 different types of paclitaxel-coated, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty balloons (contact with vessel wall for 1 minute) were used. No difference in short-term tolerance between coated and uncoated balloons and no signs of thrombotic events were observed. Quantitative angiography and histomorphometry of the stented arteries asserted the statistical equality of the baseline parameters between the control and the 3 treatment groups. Paclitaxel balloon coating led to a marked, dose-dependent reduction of parameters characterizing in-stent restenosis (reduction of neointimal area up to 63%). Despite the marked reduction in neointimal proliferation, endothelialization of stent struts was present in all samples. There was no evidence of a significant inflammatory response in the neighborhood of the stent struts. Paclitaxel balloon coating is safe, and it effectively inhibits restenosis after coronary angioplasty with stent implantation in the porcine model. The degree of reduction in neointimal formation was comparable to that achieved with drug-eluting stents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                December 2007
                27 September 2007
                : 45
                : 1
                : 45-53
                Affiliations
                a2nd Medical Clinic, bClinic for Neurology, cInstitute of Pathology, and dInstitute of Neurosurgical Pathophysiology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, and eDepartment of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospitals of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany; fInstitut Universitaire de Pathologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
                Article
                109076 J Vasc Res 2008;45:45–53
                10.1159/000109076
                17901706
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 52, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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