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      Resistance of the Internal Mammary Artery to Restenosis: A Histomorphologic Study of Various Porcine Arteries


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          Background/Aims: Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts is much less pronounced than in other arteries and venous grafts. The aim of the study was to test whether various arteries respond differently to dilatation. Methods: PTA of the IMA, carotid, renal and circumflex coronary (RCx) arteries was performed in 9 pigs (balloon to artery ratio of 1:1.5). After 8 weeks, angiography was repeated and vessels prepared for histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was done to examine proliferative activity (Ki67) and to identify the vasa vasorum of the adventitia (F VIII-RA). Results: The intima-media ratio after PTA was lowest in the IMA (0.06), followed by the carotid (0.27) and renal arteries (0.49) and the RCx (0.69). Proliferation of the intima was seen at 287° of the vessel circumference in the RCx, at 286° in the renal and at 166° in the carotid artery. No proliferative activity was seen in the IMA. The intima-adventitia ratio was lower in the IMA than in the RCx and renal arteries (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intima proliferation after PTA varies between the different vessels, with best results seen in the IMA. There are differences in remodeling after PTA between muscular, muscular/elastic and elastic arteries.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Vascular wall resident progenitor cells: a source for postnatal vasculogenesis.

          Here, we report the existence of endothelial precursor (EPC) and stem cells in a distinct zone of the vascular wall that are capable to differentiate into mature endothelial cells, hematopoietic and local immune cells, such as macrophages. This zone has been identified to be localized between smooth muscle and adventitial layer of human adult vascular wall. It predominantly contains CD34-positive (+) but CD31-negative (-) cells, which also express VEGFR2 and TIE2. Only few cells in this zone of the vascular wall are positive for CD45. In a ring assay using the fragments of human internal thoracic artery (HITA), we show here that the CD34+ cells of the HITA-wall form capillary sprouts ex vivo and are apparently recruited for capillary formation by tumor cells. New vessels formed by these vascular wall resident EPCs express markers for angiogenically activated endothelial cells, such as CEACAM1, and also for mature endothelial cells, such as VE-cadherin or occludin. Vascular wall areas containing EPCs are found in large and middle sized arteries and veins of all organs studied here. These data suggest the existence of a ;vasculogenic zone' in the wall of adult human blood vessels, which may serve as a source for progenitor cells for postnatal vasculogenesis, contributing to tumor vascularization and local immune response.
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            Two internal thoracic artery grafts are better than one.

            Does the use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts provide incremental benefit relative to the use of a single ITA graft? We conducted a retrospective, nonrandomized, long-term (mean follow-up interval of 10 postoperative years) study of patients undergoing elective primary isolated coronary bypass surgery who received either single (8123 patients) or bilateral ITA grafts (2001 patients), with or without additional vein grafts. Multiple statistical methods including propensity score matching, and multivariable parsimonious and nonparsimonious risk factor analyses were used to address the issues of patient selection and heterogeneity. In-hospital mortality was 0.7% for both the bilateral and single ITA groups. Survival for the bilateral ITA group was 94%, 84%, and 67%, and for the single ITA group 92%, 79%, and 64% at 5, 10, and 15 postoperative years, respectively (P <.001). Death, reoperation, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were more frequent for patients undergoing single rather than bilateral ITA grafting, and this observation remained true despite multiple adjustments for patient selection, sampling, and length of follow-up. The differences between the bilateral and single ITA groups were greatest in regard to reoperation. The extent of benefit of bilateral ITA grafting varied according to patient-related variables, but no patient subsets were identified for whom single ITA grafting could be predicted to provide an advantage. Patients who received 2 ITA grafts had decreased risks of death, reoperation, and angioplasty.
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              Paclitaxel balloon coating, a novel method for prevention and therapy of restenosis.

              Drug-eluting stents have shown promising antirestenotic effects in clinical trials. Non-stent-based local delivery of antiproliferative drugs may offer additional flexibility and also reach vessel areas beyond the immediate stent coverage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a novel method of local drug delivery based on angioplasty balloons. Stainless steel stents (n=40; diameter, 3.0 to 3.5 mm; length, 18 mm) were implanted in the left anterior descending and circumflex coronary arteries of domestic pigs. Both conventional uncoated and 3 different types of paclitaxel-coated, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty balloons (contact with vessel wall for 1 minute) were used. No difference in short-term tolerance between coated and uncoated balloons and no signs of thrombotic events were observed. Quantitative angiography and histomorphometry of the stented arteries asserted the statistical equality of the baseline parameters between the control and the 3 treatment groups. Paclitaxel balloon coating led to a marked, dose-dependent reduction of parameters characterizing in-stent restenosis (reduction of neointimal area up to 63%). Despite the marked reduction in neointimal proliferation, endothelialization of stent struts was present in all samples. There was no evidence of a significant inflammatory response in the neighborhood of the stent struts. Paclitaxel balloon coating is safe, and it effectively inhibits restenosis after coronary angioplasty with stent implantation in the porcine model. The degree of reduction in neointimal formation was comparable to that achieved with drug-eluting stents.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2007
                27 September 2007
                : 45
                : 1
                : 45-53
                a2nd Medical Clinic, bClinic for Neurology, cInstitute of Pathology, and dInstitute of Neurosurgical Pathophysiology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, and eDepartment of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospitals of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany; fInstitut Universitaire de Pathologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
                109076 J Vasc Res 2008;45:45–53
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 52, Pages: 9
                Research Paper


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