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      Association of XRCC3 18067 C>T (Thr241Met) polymorphism with risk of cervical and ovarian cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          The 18067 C>T polymorphism of XRCC3 gene has been considered to be implicated in the development of cervical and ovarian cancers, but the results are inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association of XRCC3 18067 C>T polymorphism with risk of cervical and ovarian cancers. All studies on the association of XRCC3 18067 C>T polymorphism with cervical and ovarian cancers risk were retrieved. Finally, a total of 17 studies including 10 studies with 5,637 cases and 10,057 controls on ovarian cancer and 7 studies with 1,112 cases and 1,233 controls on cervical cancer were selected. Overall, pooled results showed that the XRCC3 18067 C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer (TC vs. CC: OR = 0.904, 95% CI = 0.841–0.972, p = 0.006; TT + TC vs. CC: OR = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.853–0.979, p = 0.010) and cervical cancer (TC vs. CC: OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.066–1.585, p = 0.009). Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed an increased risk of cervical and ovarian cancer in Asians and Caucasians, respectively. The present meta-analysis inconsistent with the previous meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC3 18067 C>T polymorphism might be implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical and ovarian cancers.

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          Genomic instability in human cancer: Molecular insights and opportunities for therapeutic attack and prevention through diet and nutrition

          Genomic instability can initiate cancer, augment progression, and influence the overall prognosis of the affected patient. Genomic instability arises from many different pathways, such as telomere damage, centrosome amplification, epigenetic modifications, and DNA damage from endogenous and exogenous sources, and can be perpetuating, or limiting, through the induction of mutations or aneuploidy, both enabling and catastrophic. Many cancer treatments induce DNA damage to impair cell division on a global scale but it is accepted that personalized treatments, those that are tailored to the particular patient and type of cancer, must also be developed. In this review, we detail the mechanisms from which genomic instability arises and can lead to cancer, as well as treatments and measures that prevent genomic instability or take advantage of the cellular defects caused by genomic instability. In particular, we identify and discuss five priority targets against genomic instability: (1) prevention of DNA damage; (2) enhancement of DNA repair; (3) targeting deficient DNA repair; (4) impairing centrosome clustering; and, (5) inhibition of telomerase activity. Moreover, we highlight vitamin D and B, selenium, carotenoids, PARP inhibitors, resveratrol, and isothiocyanates as priority approaches against genomic instability. The prioritized target sites and approaches were cross validated to identify potential synergistic effects on a number of important areas of cancer biology.
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            Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and epithelial ovarian cancer risk.

            DNA repair gene polymorphisms and mutations are known to influence cancer risk. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair genes are associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. Up to 1,600 cases and 4,241 controls from 4 separate genetic association studies from 3 countries were genotyped for 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 6 genes (BRCA1, NBS1, RAD51, RAD52, XRCC2 and XRCC3) involved in homologous recombination of DNA double strand breaks. Genotype specific risks were estimated as odds ratios (OR) by unconditional logistic regression. No association was detected between EOC risk and BRCA1 Q356R, BRCA1 P871L, RAD51 g135c, RAD51 g172t, RAD52 c2259t, NBS1 L34L, NBS1 E185Q, NBS1 A399A, NBS1 P672P, XRCC2 g4324c, XRCC2 c41657t and XRCC3 T241M. The XRCC2 R188H polymorphism was associated with a modest reduction in EOC risk: OR for heterozygotes was 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-1.0) and for rare homozygotes 0.3 (0.1-0.9). The XRCC3 a4541g polymorphism, situated in the 5'UTR, and the intronic XRCC3 a17893g polymorphism were not associated with EOC risk in general, but when the serous EOC subset only was analysed, the OR for heterozygotes for a4541g was 1.0 (0.9-1.2) and for the rare homozygotes 0.5 (0.3-0.9). For the XRCC3 a17893g polymorphism, the OR for the heterozygotes and the rare homozygotes were 0.8 (0.7-0.9) and 0.9 (0.7-1.2), respectively. In our study, some polymorphisms in XRCC2 and XRCC3 genes were associated with EOC risk. Further research on the role of these genes on epithelial ovarian cancer is warranted. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Ovarian cancer risk factors in African-American and white women.

              Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in both African-American and white women. Although prevalences of many ovarian cancer risk factors differ markedly between African Americans and whites, there has been little research on how the relative contributions of risk factors may vary between racial/ethnic groups. Using data from a North Carolina case-control study (1999-2008), the authors conducted unconditional logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for ovarian cancer risk factors in African-American (143 cases, 189 controls) and white (943 cases, 868 controls) women and to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. They also calculated attributable fractions within each racial/ethnic group for the modifiable factors of pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, and body mass index. Many risk factors showed similar relations across racial/ethnic groups, but tubal ligation and family history of breast or ovarian cancer showed stronger associations among African Americans. Younger age at menarche was associated with risk only in white women. Attributable fractions associated with tubal ligation, oral contraceptive use, and obesity were markedly higher for African Americans. The relative importance of ovarian cancer risk factors may differ for African-American women, but conclusions were limited by the small sample. There is a clear need for further research on etiologic factors for ovarian cancer in African-American women.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                imas
                IMAS
                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                IMAS
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2061-1617
                2061-5094
                07 October 2019
                :
                :
                : 1-10
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [ 2 ]Department of Pathology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd, Iran
                [ 3 ]Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [ 4 ]Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd, Iran
                [ 5 ]Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd, Iran
                [ 6 ]Mother and Newborn Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dr. Mansour Moghimi; Department of Pathology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Bou Ali Ave, P.O. Box: 734, Yazd, Iran; Phone: +98 93727 26153; E-mail: moghimim1350@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1556/1646.11.2019.21
                c9e97983-ca72-49c3-888e-b9b5af9f7ba2
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funding sources: None.
                Categories
                REVIEW

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                polymorphism,ovarian cancer,cervical cancer, XRCC3 gene,meta-analysis

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