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      The Effect of Switching from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) to Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) on Liver Enzymes, Glucose, and Lipid Profile

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          Abstract

          Objective

          We aimed to investigate the effect of switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) on the hepatic safety and metabolic profile.

          Methods

          Consecutive HIV patients, enrolled in the Surveillance Cohort Long-term Toxicity Antiretrovirals/Antivirals (SCOLTA) project, switching from TDF to TAF were included. Changes from baseline (T0) to 6-month follow-up (T1) were evaluated using paired t-test and signed rank test.

          Results

          A total of 190 patients switched from TDF to TAF and had one 6-month follow-up visit. They were 80% male, 74.2% at CDC stage A–B, 93.7% with undetectable HIV-viral load. Mean age was 46.7±10.7 years, body mass index was 25.0±3.9 kg/m 2, median CD4 cell count was 634 cell/µL (interquartile range [IQR]=439–900), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 23 (IQR=19–30) IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 24 (IQR=17–34) IU/L. At T1, both AST (median=−1, IQR=−5–2 IU/L, P=0.004) and ALT (median=−2, IQR=−7–3 IU/L, P=0.0004) showed a significant decrease. Among 28 patients with ALT >40 at baseline, reduction was significant both clinically (−17, IQR=−32–−1) and statistically ( P=0.0003). Total cholesterol levels (TC) increased (+13.4±3.8 mg/dL, P=0.0006), as well as HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (+3.8±1.2 mg/dL, P=0.02), LDL Cholesterol (LDL-C) (+7.6±3.4, P=0.03) and glucose (+4.0±1.8 mg/dL, P=0.02). D:A:D: and Framingham risk score did not change at 6 months after switch.

          Conclusion

          A significant reduction of liver enzymes was observed after switching from TDF to TAF, especially in subjects with initial level of ALT >40 IU/L. Glucose, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C increased, with no effect on cardiovascular risk scores.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation.

          The Framingham Heart Study produced sex-specific coronary heart disease (CHD) prediction functions for assessing risk of developing incident CHD in a white middle-class population. Concern exists regarding whether these functions can be generalized to other populations. To test the validity and transportability of the Framingham CHD prediction functions per a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop organized for this purpose. Sex-specific CHD functions were derived from Framingham data for prediction of coronary death and myocardial infarction. These functions were applied to 6 prospectively studied, ethnically diverse cohorts (n = 23 424), including whites, blacks, Native Americans, Japanese American men, and Hispanic men: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1988), Physicians' Health Study (1982), Honolulu Heart Program (1980-1982), Puerto Rico Heart Health Program (1965-1968), Strong Heart Study (1989-1991), and Cardiovascular Health Study (1989-1990). The performance, or ability to accurately predict CHD risk, of the Framingham functions compared with the performance of risk functions developed specifically from the individual cohorts' data. Comparisons included evaluation of the equality of relative risks for standard CHD risk factors, discrimination, and calibration. For white men and women and for black men and women the Framingham functions performed reasonably well for prediction of CHD events within 5 years of follow-up. Among Japanese American and Hispanic men and Native American women, the Framingham functions systematically overestimated the risk of 5-year CHD events. After recalibration, taking into account different prevalences of risk factors and underlying rates of developing CHD, the Framingham functions worked well in these populations. The sex-specific Framingham CHD prediction functions perform well among whites and blacks in different settings and can be applied to other ethnic groups after recalibration for differing prevalences of risk factors and underlying rates of CHD events.
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            Predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients: the data collection on adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs study.

            HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may experience metabolic complications, potentially increasing their risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Furthermore, exposures to some antiretroviral drugs seem to be independently associated with increased CVD risk. We aimed to develop cardiovascular risk-assessment models tailored to HIV-infected patients. Prospective multinational cohort study. The data set included 22,625 HIV-infected patients from 20 countries in Europe and Australia who were free of CVD at entry into the Data collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Study. Using cross-validation methods, separate models were developed to predict the risk of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and a composite CVD endpoint. Model performance was compared with the Framingham score. The models included age, sex, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, family history of CVD, diabetes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and indinavir, lopinavir/r and abacavir exposure. The models performed well with area under the receiver operator curve statistics of 0.783 (range 0.642-0.820) for myocardial infarction, 0.776 (0.670-0.818) for coronary heart disease and 0.769 (0.695-0.824) for CVD. The models estimated more accurately the outcomes in the subgroups than the Framingham score. Risk equations developed from a population of HIV-infected patients, incorporating routinely collected cardiovascular risk parameters and exposure to individual antiretroviral therapy drugs, might be more useful in estimating CVD risks in HIV-infected persons than conventional risk prediction models.
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              Is Open Access

              Effectiveness and safety of oral HIV preexposure prophylaxis for all populations

              Objective: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers a promising new approach to HIV prevention. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the evidence for use of oral PrEP containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as an additional HIV prevention strategy in populations at substantial risk for HIV based on HIV acquisition, adverse events, drug resistance, sexual behavior, and reproductive health outcomes. Design: Rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy reviewed three electronic databases and conference abstracts through April 2015. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Eighteen studies were included, comprising data from 39 articles and six conference abstracts. Across populations and PrEP regimens, PrEP significantly reduced the risk of HIV acquisition compared with placebo. Trials with PrEP use more than 70% demonstrated the highest PrEP effectiveness (risk ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.45, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. Trials with low PrEP use did not show a significantly protective effect. Adverse events were similar between PrEP and placebo groups. More cases of drug-resistant HIV infection were found among PrEP users who initiated PrEP while acutely HIV-infected, but incidence of acquiring drug-resistant HIV during PrEP use was low. Studies consistently found no association between PrEP use and changes in sexual risk behavior. PrEP was not associated with increased pregnancy-related adverse events or hormonal contraception effectiveness. Conclusion: PrEP is protective against HIV infection across populations, presents few significant safety risks, and there is no evidence of behavioral risk compensation. The effective and cost-effective use of PrEP will require development of best practices for fostering uptake and adherence among people at substantial HIV risk.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                15 December 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 5515-5520
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Infectious Diseases Unit ASST-MONZA, San Gerardo Hospital-University of Milano-Bicocca , Monza, Italy
                [2 ]“ASIA” Foundation ONLUS , Milan, Italy
                [3 ]Unit of Infectious Diseases, ASST della Valle Olona , Busto Arsizio, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Internal Medicine 2, Infectious Diseases Unit, “Santa Maria della Misericordia” General Hospital , Perugia, Italy
                [5 ]1st Department of Infectious Diseases, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco , Milan, Italy
                [6 ]Infectious Diseases Unit, Careggi Hospital , Florence, Italy
                [7 ]Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari , Sassari, Italy
                [8 ]University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” , Napoli, Italy
                [9 ]Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara , Chieti, Italy
                [10 ]Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, ARNAS Garibaldi , Catania, Italy
                [11 ]Infectious Diseases Unit, Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital, Usl centro , Florence, Italy
                [12 ]Infectious Diseases, San Martino Hospital Genoa , Genoa, Italy
                [13 ]Department of Human Pathology of the Adult and the Developmental Age “G. Barresi”, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Messina , Messina, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nicola SquillaceInfectious Diseases Unit, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di MONZA, San Gerardo Hospital-University of Milano-Bicocca , Via Pergolesi 33, Monza20900, ItalyTel +390392339588Fax +390392339327 Email nicolasquillace74@gmail.com
                Article
                274307
                10.2147/DDDT.S274307
                7751319
                © 2020 Squillace et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 8, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                liver enzymes, tdf, hiv, taf

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