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      Intelligent gold nanostars for in vivo CT imaging and catalase-enhanced synergistic photodynamic & photothermal tumor therapy


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          Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved and minimally invasive form of cancer treatment. However, due to hypoxia at the tumor site and phototoxicity to normal tissues, monotherapies using photosensitizers remain suboptimal. This study aimed to develop a highly selective controlled catalase-enhanced synergistic photodynamic and photothermal cancer therapy based on gold nanostars.

          Methods: Gold nanostars (GNS) with high thermal conversion efficiency were used as the core for photothermal therapy (PTT) and the shell consisted of the photosensitizer Ce6-loaded mesoporous silicon. The shell was modified with catalase (E), which catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen at the tumor site, alleviating hypoxia and increasing the effect of the photodynamic treatment. Finally, a phospholipid derivative with c(RGDyK) was used as the targeting moiety and the nanoparticle-encapsulating material.

          Results: The nanoprobe exhibited good dispersion, high stability, and high photothermal conversion efficiency (~28%) for PTT as well as a photodynamic "on-off" effect on Ce6 encapsulated in mesoporous channels. The "release" of Ce6 was only triggered under photothermal stimulation in vivo. Due to its targeting ability, 72 h after injection of the probe, the tumor site in mice showed an observable CT response. The combined treatment using photothermal therapy (PTT) and catalase-enhanced photo-controlled PDT exerted a superior effect to PTT or PDT monotherapies.

          Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the use of this intelligent nanoprobe for CT-targeted image-guided treatment of tumors with integrated photothermal therapy (PTT) and catalase-enhanced controlled photodynamic therapy (PDT) may provide a novel approach for cancer theranostics.

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          Most cited references39

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          Nuclear-targeted drug delivery of TAT peptide-conjugated monodisperse mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

          Most present nanodrug delivery systems have been developed to target cancer cells but rarely nuclei. However, nuclear-targeted drug delivery is expected to kill cancer cells more directly and efficiently. In this work, TAT peptide has been employed to conjugate onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs-TAT) with high payload for nuclear-targeted drug delivery for the first time. Monodispersed MSNs-TAT of varied particle sizes have been synthesized to investigate the effects of particle size and TAT conjugation on the nuclear membrane penetrability of MSNs. MSNs-TAT with a diameter of 50 nm or smaller can efficiently target the nucleus and deliver the active anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) into the targeted nucleus, killing these cancer cells with much enhanced efficiencies. This study may provide an effective strategy for the design and development of cell-nuclear-targeted drug delivery.
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            Nanozyme Decorated Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

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              Basic principles of photodynamic therapy


                Author and article information

                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                13 July 2019
                : 9
                : 19
                : 5424-5442
                [1 ]Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, P. R. China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics (HUST), Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, P. R. China
                [3 ]Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition University of Maryland, School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: Tel/Fax: +86-27-8779-2202. Email address: zydi@ 123456mail.hust.edu.cn (Y.D. Zhao).

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                © The author(s)

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                Research Paper

                Molecular medicine
                ct imaging,catalase,hypoxia,photothermal therapy,photodynamic therapy,singlet oxygen


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