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      HDL induces NO-dependent vasorelaxation via the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3

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          The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum.

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            Vascular endothelial cell adherens junction assembly and morphogenesis induced by sphingosine-1-phosphate.

            Vascular endothelial cells undergo morphogenesis into capillary networks in response to angiogenic factors. We show here that sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), a platelet-derived bioactive lipid, activates the EDG-1 and -3 subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors on endothelial cells to regulate angiogenesis. SPP induces the Gi/mitogen-activated protein kinase/cell survival pathway and the small GTPase Rho- and Raccoupled adherens junction assembly. Both EDG-1-and EDG-3-regulated signaling pathways are required for endothelial cell morphogenesis into capillary-like networks. Indeed, SPP synergized with polypeptide angiogenic growth factors in the formation of mature neovessels in vivo. These data define SPP as a novel regulator of angiogenesis.
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              HDL and arteriosclerosis: beyond reverse cholesterol transport.

              The inverse correlation between serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the risk of coronary heart disease, the protection of susceptible animals from atherosclerosis by transgenic manipulation of HDL metabolism, and several potentially anti-atherogenic in vitro-properties have made HDL metabolism an interesting target for pharmacological intervention in atheroslcerosis. We have previously reviewed the concept of reverse cholesterol transport, which describes both the metabolism and the classic anti-atherogenic function of HDL (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20 2001 13). We here summarize the current understanding of additional biological, potentially anti-atherogenic properties of HDL. HDL inhibits the chemotaxis of monocytes, the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, LDL oxidation, complement activation, platelet activation and factor X activation but also stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, the synthesis of prostacyclin and natriuretic peptide C in endothelial cells, and the activation of proteins C and S. These anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregatory, anti-coagulant, and pro-fibrinolytic activities are exerted by different components of HDL, namley apolipoproteins, enzymes, and even specific phospholipids. This complexity further emphasizes that changes in the functionality of HDL rather than changes of plasma HDL-cholesterol levels determine the anti-atherogenicity of therapeutic alterations of HDL metabolism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                February 15 2004
                February 15 2004
                : 113
                : 4
                : 569-581
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200418004
                14966566
                ca01be4b-3f52-477c-9f80-fffa3caca8d3
                © 2004
                History

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