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      The Effect of Health Education by Pharmacists on 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cluster-Randomized Control Study in a Low Socioeconomic Status Javanese Population

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          Abstract

          Background: Evidence from previous studies demonstrates that lifestyle modification reduces the incidence and complications of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The study aimed to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention provided by pharmacists on the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and quality of life (QoL) in a low socioeconomic status Javanese population. Methods: This research was a cluster-randomized controlled study of 1-year duration, conducted in a lower social economic community in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The eligible subjects were dichotomized into 2 groups: 40 to 55 years (n = 61 vs 65) and 56 to 70 years (n = 21 vs 43) for intervention and control subjects, respectively. The ASCVD score and risk factors within the age-based groups were analyzed using T test/Mann-Whitney test for continuous data or chi-square test for categorical data. Results: The intervention and control subjects had similar baseline characteristics ( P > .05), including the ASCVD risk with the low- and high-risk classification for younger and elder subjects, respectively. At final follow-up, the younger intervention subjects had lower 10-year ASCVD risk ( P = .001), higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( P = .02), smoking status ( P = .001), persistence rate ( P = .03), and QoL value for the physical and social function domains ( P < .05) than the control subjects, whereas the elder intervention subjects only had better ASCVD risk score than controls ( P = .03). Smoking interacting with intervention was the most influential variable on ASCVD risk in logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the health education by the pharmacists produce significant outcomes of the ASCVD risk, smoking status, and QoL of physical and social function particularly in the younger group.

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          Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes.

          Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among such patients. In 16 study centers in the United States, we randomly assigned 5145 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes to participate in an intensive lifestyle intervention that promoted weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity (intervention group) or to receive diabetes support and education (control group). The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for angina during a maximum follow-up of 13.5 years. The trial was stopped early on the basis of a futility analysis when the median follow-up was 9.6 years. Weight loss was greater in the intervention group than in the control group throughout the study (8.6% vs. 0.7% at 1 year; 6.0% vs. 3.5% at study end). The intensive lifestyle intervention also produced greater reductions in glycated hemoglobin and greater initial improvements in fitness and all cardiovascular risk factors, except for low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The primary outcome occurred in 403 patients in the intervention group and in 418 in the control group (1.83 and 1.92 events per 100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio in the intervention group, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.09; P=0.51). An intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on weight loss did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; Look AHEAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00017953.).
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            Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality: Possible Causes and Implications.

            If the control of infectious diseases was the public health success story of the first half of the 20th century, then the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke has been the success story of the century's past 4 decades. The early phase of this decline in coronary heart disease and stroke was unexpected and controversial when first reported in the mid-1970s, having followed 60 years of gradual increase as the US population aged. However, in 1978, the participants in a conference convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute concluded that a significant recent downtick in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality rates had definitely occurred, at least in the US Since 1978, a sharp decline in mortality rates from coronary heart disease and stroke has become unmistakable throughout the industrialized world, with age-adjusted mortality rates having declined to about one third of their 1960s baseline by 2000. Models have shown that this remarkable decline has been fueled by rapid progress in both prevention and treatment, including precipitous declines in cigarette smoking, improvements in hypertension treatment and control, widespread use of statins to lower circulating cholesterol levels, and the development and timely use of thrombolysis and stents in acute coronary syndrome to limit or prevent infarction. However, despite the huge growth in knowledge and advances in prevention and treatment, there remain many questions about this decline. In fact, there is evidence that the rate of decline may have abated and may even be showing early signs of reversal in some population groups. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, through a request for information, is soliciting input that could inform a follow-up conference on or near the 40th anniversary of the original landmark conference to further explore these trends in cardiovascular mortality in the context of what has come before and what may lie ahead.
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              SF-36 total score as a single measure of health-related quality of life: Scoping review

              According to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire developers, a global measure of health-related quality of life such as the “SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score” cannot be generated from the questionnaire. However, studies keep on reporting such measure. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to describe some characteristics of articles reporting the SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score in the scientific literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was adapted to a scoping review. We performed searches in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, BVS, and Cochrane Library databases for articles using such scores. We found 172 articles published between 1997 and 2015; 110 (64.0%) of them were published from 2010 onwards; 30.0% appeared in journals with Impact Factor 3.00 or greater. Overall, 129 (75.0%) out of the 172 studies did not specify the method for calculating the “SF-36 Total Score”; 13 studies did not specify their methods but referred to the SF-36 developers’ studies or others; and 30 articles used different strategies for calculating such score, the most frequent being arithmetic averaging of the eight SF-36 domains scores. We concluded that the “SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score” has been increasingly reported in the scientific literature. Researchers should be aware of this procedure and of its possible impacts upon human health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Prim Care Community Health
                J Prim Care Community Health
                JPC
                spjpc
                Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                2150-1319
                2150-1327
                13 May 2018
                Jan-Dec 2018
                : 9
                : 2150132718773674
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
                Author notes
                [*]Rita Suhadi, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sanata Dharma University, Campus III, Maguwoharjo, Sleman, DI Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia. Email: ritasuhadi@ 123456usd.ac.id
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3878-9572
                Article
                10.1177_2150132718773674
                10.1177/2150132718773674
                5954577
                29756523
                ca0375b4-714a-418d-b224-40fc661b1024
                © The Author(s) 2018

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                History
                Funding
                Funded by: The Director General of Higher Education, Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, ;
                Award ID: PTUPT scheme. No: 027 a /Penel.LPPM USD/IV 12016 a
                Categories
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2018

                pharmacist,community pharmacist,ascvd risk,low socioeconomic status,health education

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