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      Poor biosecurity could lead to disease outbreaks in animal populations

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          Abstract

          Human-mediated disease outbreaks due to poor biosecurity practices when processing animals in wild populations have been suspected. We tested whether not changing nitrile gloves between processing wood frog ( Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles and co-housing individuals increased pathogen transmission and subsequent diseased-induced mortality caused by the emerging pathogen, ranavirus. We found that not changing gloves between processing infected and uninfected tadpoles resulted in transmission of ranavirus and increased the risk of mortality of uninfected tadpoles by 30X. Co-housing tadpoles for only 15 minutes with 10% of individuals infected resulted in ranavirus transmission and 50% mortality of uninfected tadpoles. More extreme mortality was observed when the co-housing infection prevalence was >10%. Our results illustrate that human-induced disease outbreaks due to poor biosecurity practices are possible in wild animal populations.

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          Most cited references 41

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          A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification.

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            The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians.

            Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as key threats to wildlife. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in widespread amphibian declines and is currently the largest infectious disease threat to biodiversity. Here, we review the causes of Bd emergence, its impact on amphibian populations and the ecology of Bd transmission. We describe studies to answer outstanding issues, including the origin of the pathogen, the effect of Bd relative to other causes of population declines, the modes of Bd dispersal, and factors influencing the intensity of its transmission. Chytridiomycosis is an archetypal emerging disease, with a broad host range and significant impacts on host populations and, as such, poses a crucial challenge for wildlife managers and an urgent conservation concern. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Wildlife disease. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders.

              Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 March 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center for Wildlife Health, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
                [2 ] University of Georgia Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, Tifton, Georgia, United States of America
                University of South Dakota, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                PONE-D-17-31706
                10.1371/journal.pone.0193243
                5841743
                29513691
                © 2018 Gray et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
                Award ID: Hatch Project 1012932
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
                Award ID: Hatch Project 1012932
                Award Recipient :
                This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Hatch Project 1012932) to MJG and DLM. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Life Cycles
                Tadpoles
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amphibians
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amphibians
                Frogs
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Animal Pathogens
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology
                Liver Diseases
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Metrics
                Death Rates
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Infectious Disease Control
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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