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      International Commission on Trichinellosis: Recommendations on post-harvest control of Trichinella in food animals

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          Abstract

          Domestic and wild animals which consume meat are at risk of becoming infected with Trichinella and therefore may pose a public health risk. Among domestic livestock, pigs are most commonly associated with Trichinella infection, but human outbreaks have also resulted from consumption of horsemeat, wild boar, bear, walrus and other wild animals. For animals that are not produced under controlled management conditions and for wild animals, specific steps should be taken to prevent human exposure to Trichinella. These steps include appropriate testing of individual carcasses to identify those that pose a public health risk, post-slaughter processing to inactivate Trichinella in meat that might be infected, and education of consumers regarding the need for proper preparation methods for meat that might contain Trichinella larvae. The International Commission on Trichinellosis recognizes three (3) acceptable means of treatment to render potentially Trichinella-infected meats safe for consumption: 1) cooking, 2) freezing (for meat from domestic pigs), and 3) irradiation. Proper use of these methods is described here, along with specific cautions on use of other methods, including curing and heating with microwaves.

          Highlights

          • Domestic and wild animals which consume meat are at risk of Trichinella infection.

          • Post-harvest inspection methods for Trichinella in pigs reduce human disease.

          • Heating is acceptable for treatment of meat to inactivate Trichinella.

          • Freezing is acceptable for the inactivation of Trichinella in domestic pork.

          • Curing processes must be validated to prove inactivation of Trichinella.

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          Most cited references 14

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          International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and man.

          The use of serological tests to detect Trichinella infection in domestic and wild animals and in humans has not been standardised yet. This review provides an uniform set of recommendations for the development and use of serological tests to detect circulating antibodies in serum samples. The recommendations are based on the best scientific published information and on the unpublished data from laboratories with a great expertise in this field and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable methods and the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.
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            Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2015/1375 of 10 August 2015 laying down specific rules on official controls for Trichinella in meat

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              International Commission on Trichinellosis: Recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and humans

              Serological methods are widely used for detection of infections in animals and humans. The recommendations provided here take into account the best current methods for the serological detection of Trichinella infection. They are based on current scientific information including unpublished data from laboratories with relevant expertise in this field. These recommendations represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) regarding acceptable methods for the use and interpretation of serology testing for Trichinella infection in animals and humans. The ICT does not recommend use of serological methods for testing individual carcasses of animals at slaughter for assuring food safety. For detection of human infections, for epidemiological studies in animals and humans, and for monitoring Trichinella infection in swine, the ICT recommends ELISA using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens. These antigens are obtained from the in-vitro maintenance of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and are recognized by sera from hosts infected by all Trichinella species and genotypes identified thus far. In most situations, positive results obtained by ELISA should be confirmed by western blot. Serological assays should be properly standardized and validated for their intended purpose. The components of the test that are critical for maintaining suitable performance should be identified and appropriately checked. Users of commercial tests should verify that the test has been adequately evaluated by an independent body. Serology is useful for detecting Trichinella in animals and humans but its limitations need to be taken into account when interpreting the results.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Food Waterborne Parasitol
                Food Waterborne Parasitol
                Food and Waterborne Parasitology
                Elsevier
                2405-6766
                21 February 2019
                March 2019
                21 February 2019
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [a ]Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 12277 Berlin, Germany
                [b ]Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
                [c ]National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Center for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721, MA, Bilthoven, Netherlands
                [d ]United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, United States of America
                [e ]National Academy of Sciences, 500 Fifth Street NW, Washington, DC 20001, United States of America
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. rgamble@ 123456nas.edu
                Article
                S2405-6766(18)30034-9 e00041
                10.1016/j.fawpar.2019.e00041
                7033995
                © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of International Association of Food and Waterborne Parasitology.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                trichinella, trichinellosis, post-harvest, food safety

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