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      Co-Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori Results in Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Enhanced VCAM-1 Expression in ApoE-Knockout Mice

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          Abstract

          Background: Upregulation of proinflammatory endothelial cell adhesion molecules and decreased bioactivity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of co-infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on these two events in apoE-KO mice. Methods: Thirty-two apoE-KO mice, 8 weeks old, were equally divided into 4 groups. The first 2 groups were infected with either C. pneumoniae or H. pylori, while the 3rd group was infected with both C. pneumoniae and H. pylori. Mice from the 4th group and 4 wild-type mice served as controls. Thoracic and abdominal aortas were harvested after 10 weeks, and staining for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The endothelial vasomotor responses of thoracic aortas to methacholine were studied in organ chambers in the absence and presence of L-NAME. The plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite were measured. Results: Staining for VCAM-1 was more intense at the branching sites of aortas from mice with co-infection than in mono-infected or noninfected apoE-KO mice. The relaxation responses to methacholine and the plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite were significantly less in the co-infected group than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-infection of apoE-KO mice with C. pneumoniae and H. pylori seems to be associated with impaired bioactivity of endothelial NO and increased expression of VCAM-1 at branching sites. The findings may suggest an additive interaction of these pathogens in atherogenesis.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Chronic infections and coronary heart disease: is there a link?

          A large number of studies have reported on associations of human coronary heart disease (CHD) and certain persistent bacterial and viral infections. We review the epidemiological and clinical evidence on CHD and Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), as well as possible mechanisms. The association between CHD and H pylori may be accounted for by residual confounding from risk factors. Although the association between C pneumoniae and CHD is stronger, the sequence of infection and disease is uncertain. As regards CMV, a limited number of patients with classic atherosclerotic coronary artery disease have been studied. Further studies are needed to resolve these uncertainties.
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            Co-expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, ELAM-1 and Hsp60 in human arterial and venous endothelial cells in response to cytokines and oxidized low-density lipoproteins.

             K Trieb,  G Schett,  G Wick (1997)
            T-cells and monocytes are the first cells infiltrating the arterial intima during the early stages of atherogenesis. Recently our laboratory has provided evidence that T-cells isolated from atherosclerotic intima reacts against heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). Transmigration of activated T-cells into the intima is mediated by adhesion molecules (ICAM-1; VCAM-1; ELAM-1) expressed on activated endothelial cells. Here we studied the potential of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1). Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL; oxLDL) and high temperature to induce adhesion molecules as well as Hsp60 and Hsp70 expression in human endothelial cells (EC). On Northern blots, a strong signal for ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was detected after 4 h, which thereafter declined, but did not reach the basal level of untreated control cells. Heat shock induced the expression of Hsp60 and Hsp70 but not of adhesion molecules. EC were cultivated in serum-free medium, which led to the expression of adhesion molecule transcripts. Addition of LDL or oxLDL to these ECs did not alter the expression of these transcripts. The production of adhesion molecule proteins was analysed by flow cytometry. In human venous endothelial cells (HVEC) and human arterial endothelial cells (HAEC) ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production was permanently highly induced, whereas the high level of ELAM-1 production at 4 h disappeared after 24 h. Furthermore, only HAEC, but not HVEC, produced ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 after stress by moderately and highly oxLDL. LDL and oxLDL did not induce the production of Hsp60 and Hsp70. The present study demonstrates the co-expression of Hsp60 and adhesion molecules in arterial and venous EC in response to cytokine and LPS exposure, and that oxLDL is an efficient inducer of adhesion molecules in arterial EC and not in venous EC. These features provide the prerequisites for a cellular immune reaction against Hsp60 expressed by stressed EC in the initial stages of atherosclerosis.
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              Rectal and colonic mesalazine concentration in ulcerative colitis: oral vs. oral plus topical treatment.

              To measure mucosal concentrations of mesalazine in ulcerative colitis patients treated with oral mesalazine alone, compared to patients treated with both topical and oral mesalazine. Twenty-two patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis were randomized to receive 2.4 g/day of oral mesalazine (11 patients) or 2.4 g/day oral plus 4 g/day of topical mesalazine (11 patients). After 2 weeks of treatment, endoscopic biopsies specimens were taken from the rectum and in descending colon just distal of the splenic flexure and stored to -80 degrees C for later assay (HPLC). Wilcoxon's rank sum test for unpaired data was used for the statistical analysis. Mucosal levels of mesalazine in the rectum were significantly higher in patients who received oral plus topical treatment than in those who had oral treatment alone (52.1 ng/mg, range: 13.6-122.1 vs. 0.2 ng/mg, range: 0.2-9.7, respectively; P < 0.0001). Similarly, in the descending colon, the mucosal concentrations of mesalazine were significantly higher in patients who had oral plus topical treatment than in those receiving oral treatment alone (46.6 ng/mg, range: 6-112.6 vs. 15.9 ng/mg, range: 2.3-42.4, respectively; P=0.01). Topical treatment of mesalazine significantly increases mucosal concentrations of mesalazine up to the splenic flexure, supporting the rationale to treat left-sided ulcerative colitis with topical formulations of mesalazine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2003
                April 2003
                19 June 2003
                : 40
                : 2
                : 115-122
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatric Cardiology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; bDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Helsinki, Finland; cBiochemical Research and dDepartment of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; eDepartment of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Lund, Sweden; fA.I. Virtanen Institute of Molecular Sciences, Kuopio, Finland; gDepartment of Microbiology and Virology Malmö, hDepartment of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Lund and Malmö, Sweden, and iDepartment of Pathology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
                Article
                70708 J Vasc Res 2003;40:115–122
                10.1159/000070708
                12808347
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 39, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Paper

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