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      Efficacy of denosumab therapy for a 21-year-old woman with Prader-Willi syndrome, osteoporosis and history of fractures: a case report

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          Abstract

          Appropriate management for osteoporosis in adult patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has not been established. We report on a 21-year-old woman with PWS, who underwent denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. She presented with fractures and was shown to have very low bone mineral density (BMD), while she had been treated with supplementation of growth hormone for 7–14 years of age and estrogen from 15 years of age. BMD was monitored in the total hip region by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory tests included bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, urinary type I collagen amino-terminal telopeptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and parathyroid hormone. BMD and laboratory data were evaluated before and at 4, 8, and 13 months of treatment. After 13 months of denosumab therapy, BMD increased by 4.5%, and bone turnover markers notably improved. No fractures occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the clinical outcomes of denosumab treatment for osteoporosis in patients with PWS. Based on our findings, denosumab could represent an effective treatment option for osteoporosis in PWS patients.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Decreased bone mineral density in Prader-Willi syndrome: comparison with obese subjects.

          Bone density, anthropometric data, and markers of bone turnover were collected on 21 subjects diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and compared with 9 subjects with obesity of unknown cause. In addition, urinary N-telopeptide levels were obtained in all subjects. N-telopeptides are the peptide fragments of type I collagen, the major bone matrix material. During periods of active bone degradation or high bone turnover, high levels of N-telopeptides are excreted in the urine. However, no significant difference was detected in the urinary N-telopeptide levels when corrected for creatinine excretion (raw or transformed data) between our subjects with obesity or PWS and the observed effect size of the between-group difference was small. Although N-telopeptide levels were higher but not significantly different in the subjects with PWS compared with obese controls, the subjects with PWS had significantly decreased total bone and spine mineral density and total bone mineral content (all P < 0.001). No differences in N-telopeptide levels or bone mineral density were observed between subjects with PWS and chromosome 15q deletion or maternal disomy. Thus, decreased bone mineral density in subjects with PWS may relate to the lack of depositing bone mineral during growth when bones are becoming more dense (e.g., during adolescence), possibly because of decreased production of sex or growth hormones and/or long-standing hypotonia. It may not be caused by loss, or active degradation, of bone matrix measurable by the methods described in this study further supporting the possible need for hormone therapy during adolescence. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome: a longitudinal study during puberty and 9 years of growth hormone treatment.

            Longitudinal data on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) during long-term GH treatment are not available.
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              Efficacy and safety of denosumab for the treatment of osteoporosis: A systematic review

              Denosumab is an anti-RANK ligand (RANKL) monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and prevention of skeletal metastasis complications. Administered subcutaneously every 6 months, it reduces the risk of vertebral fracture by 70% and of hip fracture by 40%. Its safety profile is acceptable. Denosumab may be used to treat patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. It has anti-fracture activity equivalent to that of zoledronic acid, but no residual effect, and no action at all beyond 6 months. In France, denosumab is reimbursed as a second-line treatment after a first attempt with bisphosphonate.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2019
                25 February 2019
                : 15
                : 303-307
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, yxn14@ 123456aol.jp
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Nutrition, Shinshu University School of Medicine
                [3 ]Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine
                [4 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shinshu University School of Medicine
                [5 ]Department of Medical Genetics, Shinshu University School of Medicine
                [6 ]Center for Medical Genetics, Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yukio Nakamura, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan, Tel +81 263 37 2659, Fax +81 263 35 8844, Email yxn14@ 123456aol.jp
                Article
                tcrm-15-303
                10.2147/TCRM.S186855
                6395054
                © 2019 Uehara et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                bone mineral density, denosumab, fracture, case report, osteoporosis

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