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      Bariatric surgery: an IDF statement for obese Type 2 diabetes

      * , * , , on behalf of the International Diabetes Federation Taskforce on Epidemiology and Prevention

      Diabetic Medicine

      Blackwell Publishing Ltd

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          Abstract

          The International Diabetes Federation Taskforce on Epidemiology and Prevention of Diabetes convened a consensus working group of diabetologists, endocrinologists, surgeons and public health experts to review the appropriate role of surgery and other gastrointestinal interventions in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes. The specific goals were: to develop practical recommendations for clinicians on patient selection; to identify barriers to surgical access and suggest interventions for health policy changes that ensure equitable access to surgery when indicated; and to identify priorities for research. Bariatric surgery can significantly improve glycaemic control in severely obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. It is an effective, safe and cost-effective therapy for obese Type 2 diabetes. Surgery can be considered an appropriate treatment for people with Type 2 diabetes and obesity not achieving recommended treatment targets with medical therapies, especially in the presence of other major co-morbidities. The procedures must be performed within accepted guidelines and require appropriate multidisciplinary assessment for the procedure, comprehensive patient education and ongoing care, as well as safe and standardized surgical procedures. National guidelines for bariatric surgery need to be developed for people with Type 2 diabetes and a BMI of 35 kg/m 2 or more.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight.

          No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy expenditure to determine whether they lead to metabolic changes and whether obese subjects and those who have never been obese respond similarly. We repeatedly measured 24-hour total energy expenditure, resting and nonresting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in 18 obese subjects and 23 subjects who had never been obese. The subjects were studied at their usual body weight and after losing 10 to 20 percent of their body weight by underfeeding or gaining 10 percent by overfeeding. Maintenance of a body weight at a level 10 percent or more below the initial weight was associated with a mean (+/- SD) reduction in total energy expenditure of 6 +/- 3 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P < 0.001) and 8 +/- 5 kcal per kilogram per day in the obese subjects (P < 0.001). Resting energy expenditure and nonresting energy expenditure each decreased 3 to 4 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in both groups of subjects. Maintenance of body weight at a level 10 percent above the usual weight was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure of 9 +/- 7 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P < 0.001) and 8 +/- 4 kcal per kilogram per day in the obese subjects (P < 0.001). The thermic effect of feeding and nonresting energy expenditure increased by approximately 1 to 2 and 8 to 9 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day, respectively, after weight gain. These changes in energy expenditure were not related to the degree of adiposity or the sex of the subjects. Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.
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            Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial.

            The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. This study consisted of a multicentered, randomized, controlled trial of 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 45-74 years, with BMI >25 kg/m2 (>27 kg/m2 if taking insulin). An intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) involving group and individual meetings to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity was compared with a diabetes support and education (DSE) condition. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight vs. 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001). Mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9 vs. 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. Mean A1C dropped from 7.3 to 6.6% in ILI (P < 0.001) vs. from 7.3 to 7.2% in DSE. Systolic and diastolic pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio improved significantly more in ILI than DSE participants (all P < 0.01). At 1 year, ILI resulted in clinically significant weight loss in people with type 2 diabetes. This was associated with improved diabetes control and CVD risk factors and reduced medicine use in ILI versus DSE. Continued intervention and follow-up will determine whether these changes are maintained and will reduce CVD risk.
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              U.K. prospective diabetes study 16. Overview of 6 years' therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group.

              The objective of the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study is to determine whether improved blood glucose control in type II diabetes will prevent the complications of diabetes and whether any specific therapy is advantageous or disadvantageous. The study will report in 1998, when the median duration from randomization will be 11 years. This report is on the efficacy of therapy over 6 years of follow-up and the overall incidence of diabetic complications. Subjects comprised 4,209 newly diagnosed type II diabetic patients who after 3 months' diet were asymptomatic and had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 6.0-15.0 mmol/l. The study consists of a randomized controlled trial with two main comparisons: 1) 3,867 patients with 1,138 allocated to conventional therapy, primarily with diet, and 2,729 allocated to intensive therapy with additional sulfonylurea or insulin, which increase insulin supply, aiming for FPG < 6 mmol/l; and 2) 753 obese patients with 411 allocated to conventional therapy and 342 allocated to intensive therapy with metformin, which enhances insulin sensitivity. In the first comparison, in 2,287 subjects studied for 6 years, intensive therapy with sulfonylurea and insulin similarly improved glucose control compared with conventional therapy, with median FPG at 1 year of 6.8 and 8.2 mmol/l, respectively (P < 0.0001). and median HbA1c of 6.1 and 6.8%, respectively (P < 0.0001). During the next 5 years, the FPG increased progressively on all therapies (P < 0.0001) with medians at 6 years in the conventional and intensive groups, FPG 9.5 and 7.8 mmol/l, and HbA1c 8.0 and 7.1%, respectively. The glycemic deterioration was associated with progressive loss of beta-cell function. In the second comparison, in 548 obese subjects studied for 6 years, metformin improved glucose control similarly to intensive therapy with sulfonylurea or insulin. Metformin did not increase body weight or increase the incidence of hypoglycemia to the same extent as therapy with sulfonylurea or insulin. A high incidence of clinical complications occurred by 6-year follow-up. Of all subjects, 18.0% had suffered one or more diabetes-related clinical endpoints, with 12.1% having a macrovascular and 5.7% a microvascular endpoint. Sulfonylurea, metformin, and insulin therapies were similarly effective in improving glucose control compared with a policy of diet therapy. The study is examining whether the continued improved glucose control, obtained by intensive therapy compared with conventional therapy (median over 6 years HbA1c 6.6% compared with 7.4%), will be clinically advantageous in maintaining health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabet Med
                dme
                Diabetic Medicine
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd
                0742-3071
                1464-5491
                June 2011
                : 28
                : 6
                : 628-642
                Affiliations
                [* ]Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                []Imperial College London London, UK
                []Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Professor Paul Zimmet, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Level 4, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, USA. E-mail: paul.zimmet@ 123456bakeridi.edu.au

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms

                Article
                10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03306.x
                3123702
                21480973
                Journal compilation © 2011 Diabetes UK

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.

                Categories
                Article: Clinical Practice

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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