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      Multidisciplinary Approaches for Transthyretin Amyloidosis

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          Abstract

          Amyloidosis caused by systemic deposition of transthyretin (TTR) is called ATTR amyloidosis and mainly includes hereditary ATTR (ATTRv) amyloidosis and wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) amyloidosis. Until recently, ATTRv amyloidosis had been considered a disease in the field of neurology because neuropathic symptoms predominated in patients described in early reports, whereas advances in diagnostic techniques and increased recognition of this disease revealed the presence of patients with cardiomyopathy as a predominant feature. In contrast, ATTRwt amyloidosis has been considered a disease in the field of cardiology. However, recent studies have suggested that some of the patients with ATTRwt amyloidosis present tenosynovial tissue complications, particularly carpal tunnel syndrome, as an initial manifestation of amyloidosis, necessitating an awareness of this disease among neurologists and orthopedists. Although histopathological confirmation of amyloid deposits has traditionally been considered mandatory for the diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis, the development of noninvasive imaging techniques in the field of cardiology, such as echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear imaging, enabled nonbiopsy diagnosis of this disease. The mechanisms underlying characteristic cardiac imaging findings have been deciphered by histopathological studies. Novel disease-modifying therapies for ATTR amyloidosis, such as TTR stabilizers, short interfering RNA, and antisense oligonucleotides, were initially approved for ATTRv amyloidosis patients with polyneuropathy. However, the indications for the use of these disease-modifying therapies gradually widened to include ATTRv and ATTRwt amyloidosis patients with cardiomyopathy. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, occurred, the minimization of hospital visits and telemedicine have become increasingly important. As older age and cardiovascular disease are major factors associated with increased disease severity and mortality of COVID-19, many ATTR amyloidosis patients are at increased risk of disease aggravation when they are infected with SARS-CoV-2. From this viewpoint, close interspecialty communication to determine the optimal interval of evaluation is needed for the management of patients with ATTR amyloidosis.

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          Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the COVID-19 Pandemic

          The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular care of patients. First, those with COVID-19 and pre-existing cardiovascular disease have an increased risk of severe disease and death. Second, infection has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. Third, therapies under investigation for COVID-19 may have cardiovascular side effects. Fourth, the response to COVID-19 can compromise the rapid triage of non-COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular conditions. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become hosts or vectors of virus transmission. We hereby review the peer-reviewed and pre-print reports pertaining to cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19 and highlight gaps in knowledge that require further study pertinent to patients, health care workers, and health systems.
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            Patisiran, an RNAi Therapeutic, for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis

            Patisiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic agent, specifically inhibits hepatic synthesis of transthyretin.
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              Tafamidis Treatment for Patients with Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy

              Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy is caused by the deposition of transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the myocardium. The deposition occurs when wild-type or variant transthyretin becomes unstable and misfolds. Tafamidis binds to transthyretin, preventing tetramer dissociation and amyloidogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                koike-haruki@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp
                Journal
                Cardiol Ther
                Cardiol Ther
                Cardiology and Therapy
                Springer Healthcare (Cheshire )
                2193-8261
                2193-6544
                4 June 2021
                4 June 2021
                : 1-23
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.27476.30, ISNI 0000 0001 0943 978X, Department of Neurology, , Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, ; Nagoya, Japan
                [2 ]GRID grid.27476.30, ISNI 0000 0001 0943 978X, Department of Cardiology, , Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, ; Nagoya, Japan
                Article
                222
                10.1007/s40119-021-00222-w
                8177037
                34089151
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan
                Award ID: H29-022
                Award Recipient :
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