In this study we aimed to investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of anisodamine in the treatment of bacteraemic shock could – at least in part – be brought about by its direct interference with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of endothelial cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of anisodamine on LPS-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue factor (TF), two major markers of endothelial activation. PAI-1 was measured in the conditioned media of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) whereas TF activity was measured in the lysates of these cells by using a single step clotting assay. Results obtained in these assays were confirmed on the level of specific mRNA expression by Northern blotting using specific probes for human PAI-1 or TF. In order to evaluate a possible contribution of the NF-ĸB pathway on the effects observed, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were performed using nuclear extracts from HUVEC and NF-ĸB-binding oligonucleotides. When HUVEC were treated with 1 µg/ml LPS a significant increase in PAI-1 and TF activity was observed compared with cells incubated without LPS. Anisodamine dose-dependently inhibited this LPS-induced upregulation of PAI-1 and TF. Anisodamine alone had no effect on the constitutive expression of PAI-1 and TF in these cells. These effects were also confirmed on the level of specific PAI-1 and TF mRNA expression by Northern blotting. Furthermore, we could show by EMSA that anisodamine completely abolished LPS-induced NF-ĸB DNA binding activity in nuclear extracts from HUVEC treated with LPS together with anisodamine. Thus, we provide evidence that anisodamine counteracts endothelial cell activation by inhibiting LPS-induced PAI-1 and TF expression in these cells. Its interference with the NF-ĸB pathway might – at least in part – contribute to this effect. The ability of anisodamine to counteract LPS effects on endothelial cells might be one underlying mechanism explaining its efficacy in the treatment of bacteraemic shock.