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      Anisodamine Counteracts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tissue Factor and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression in Human Endothelial Cells: Contribution of the NF-κB Pathway

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          Abstract

          In this study we aimed to investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of anisodamine in the treatment of bacteraemic shock could – at least in part – be brought about by its direct interference with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of endothelial cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of anisodamine on LPS-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue factor (TF), two major markers of endothelial activation. PAI-1 was measured in the conditioned media of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) whereas TF activity was measured in the lysates of these cells by using a single step clotting assay. Results obtained in these assays were confirmed on the level of specific mRNA expression by Northern blotting using specific probes for human PAI-1 or TF. In order to evaluate a possible contribution of the NF-ĸB pathway on the effects observed, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were performed using nuclear extracts from HUVEC and NF-ĸB-binding oligonucleotides. When HUVEC were treated with 1 µg/ml LPS a significant increase in PAI-1 and TF activity was observed compared with cells incubated without LPS. Anisodamine dose-dependently inhibited this LPS-induced upregulation of PAI-1 and TF. Anisodamine alone had no effect on the constitutive expression of PAI-1 and TF in these cells. These effects were also confirmed on the level of specific PAI-1 and TF mRNA expression by Northern blotting. Furthermore, we could show by EMSA that anisodamine completely abolished LPS-induced NF-ĸB DNA binding activity in nuclear extracts from HUVEC treated with LPS together with anisodamine. Thus, we provide evidence that anisodamine counteracts endothelial cell activation by inhibiting LPS-induced PAI-1 and TF expression in these cells. Its interference with the NF-ĸB pathway might – at least in part – contribute to this effect. The ability of anisodamine to counteract LPS effects on endothelial cells might be one underlying mechanism explaining its efficacy in the treatment of bacteraemic shock.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia.

          Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab')2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
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            Anisodamine inhibits thromboxane synthesis, granulocyte aggregation, and platelet aggregation. A possible mechanism for its efficacy in bacteremic shock.

            Anisodamine hydrochloride is a vasoactive drug produced in the People's Republic of China that appears efficacious in clinical and experimental bacteremic shock, and about whose mode of action little is known. Suspecting that the drug might work by inhibition of platelet or granulocyte aggregation, or both, we tested it in these systems. Anisodamine proved a modest inhibitor of granulocyte aggregation and a powerful inhibitor of platelet aggregation; thromboxane synthesis was inhibited in anisodamine-treated platelets, further suggesting that the biochemical mode of action might be inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase or thromboxane synthetase.
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              Septic shock. Hemodynamics and pathogenesis

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2001
                February 2001
                08 February 2001
                : 38
                : 1
                : 13-19
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, University of Vienna, Austria; bDepartment of Pathology, Tongji Medical University, Tongji, People’s Republic of China
                Article
                51025 J Vasc Res 2001;38:13–19
                10.1159/000051025
                11173990
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 28, Pages: 7
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