Interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) is an essential signal-transducing component of the IL-1 receptor type I. The recent availability of IL-1RAcP-deficient (KO) mice allows to study the in vivo function of IL-1RAcP. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with rat recombinant IL-1β (200 ng/mouse), lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 µg/mouse), or subjected to 1-hour restraint stress. Neuroendocrine and immune parameters were measured 2 h after IL-1 or LPS injection or just after restraint. In wild-type controls, IL-1 and LPS activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased plasma IL-6. In KO mice, the plasma levels of corticosterone and IL-6 increased after LPS, but not after rat recombinant IL-1β. The LPS-induced depression of the lymphoproliferation was similar in wild-type and KO mice. Finally, the 1-hour restraint was able to increase the plasma levels of corticosterone in KO mice. These results show that IL-1RAcP is essential for physiological activities of peripheral IL-1, as it was previously demonstrated for those of brain IL-1. However, using IL-1RAcP KO mice, we were unable to demonstrate a specific role of endogenous IL-1 during LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may occur in the absence of the IL-1-transducing receptor, IL-1RAcP.