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      Euploea dorippus Klug, 1845: species, semispecies, subspecies, junior subjective synonym of Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus), and/or form – what does Klug’s dorippus represent? (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae)

      Nota Lepidopterologica

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The type material of the available name Euploea dorippus Klug, 1845, originated from northern Sudan, an area that lies beyond the core zone of the semispecies or subspecies currently known as Danaus chrysippus dorippus, and the description did not include examples of the phenotype currently referred to as Danaus chrysippus f. ‘dorippus’. Possible consequences for nomenclature of the infraspecific species group taxa and form names of Danaus chrysippus are discussed.

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          The Subspecies Concept and Its Taxonomic Application

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            The butterfly Danaus chrysippus is infected by a male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium.

            Many insects carry maternally inherited bacteria which kill male offspring. Such bacteria will spread if male death benefits the female siblings who transmit the bacterium, and they are therefore expected in insects with antagonistic sibling interactions. We report that the butterfly Danaus chrysippus is host to a maternally inherited male-killing bacterium. Using diagnostic PCR and rDNA sequence, the bacterium was identified as a Spiroplasma closely related to 2 ladybird beetle male-killers and the tick symbiont Spiroplasma ixodetis. The male-killer was found to have a geographically restricted distribution, with up to 40% of females being infected in East Africa, but no detectable infection in small samples from other populations. Danaus chrysippus is a surprising host for a male-killer as its eggs are laid singly. This suggests that the ecological conditions permitting male-killers to invade may be more widespread than previously realized.
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              Taxonomic Aspects of Avian Hybridization

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nota Lepidopterologica
                NL
                Pensoft Publishers
                2367-5365
                0342-7536
                April 15 2020
                April 15 2020
                : 43
                : 117-138
                Article
                10.3897/nl.43.47936
                © 2020

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