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      Determination of antimicrobial activity of some commercial fruit (apple, papaya, lemon and strawberry) against bacteria causing urinary tract infection

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          Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a worldwide phenomenon in modern times, in which the dependency on antibiotics for its treatment is increasing. The current study was conducted in order to find alternatives to antibiotics by investigating some commercial fruits for their antimicrobial activity. The fruits in this study included green apple ( Malus domestica), papaya ( Carica papaya), lemon ( Citrus limon), and strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa), which were used to prepare methanolic and ethanolic extracts through Soxhlet extraction technique. The extracts were used against bacteria that cause UTI, and five different strains were selected: E. coli (ATCC: 15922) , E. coli (ATCC: 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC: 29212), and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial tests of the extracts were conducted by following the agar well diffusion method, where ciprofloxacin was used as a positive control, and autoclaved distilled water was used as a negative control. Among the fruits, apple and papaya extracts did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested bacteria. However, both lemon and strawberry extracts showed inhibition zone against all of the mentioned bacteria. The ethanolic extracts of lemon and strawberry were more potent than their methanolic extracts. Lemon ethanolic extract showed the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853) (18.34 ± 0.58) and lowest one against Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.00 ± 1.00). Strawberry ethanolic extracts showed the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853) (16.33 ± 0.58) and the lowest one against Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.33 ± 0.58). As antibiotic resistance is paving the way for multi-drug resistant bacteria, the results of lemon and strawberry can be considered to be used as an antimicrobial agent in treating urinary tract infections.

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          Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries.

          To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including probiotic bacteria and the intestinal pathogen Salmonella. Antimicrobial activity was screened by an agar diffusion method and bacterial growth was measured in liquid culture as a more accurate assay. Myricetin inhibited the growth of all lactic acid bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract flora but it did not affect the Salmonella strain. In general, berry extracts inhibited the growth of Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria. These variations may reflect differences in cell surface structures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cloudberry, raspberry and strawberry extracts were strong inhibitors of Salmonella. Sea buckthorn berry and blackcurrant showed the least activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Different bacterial species exhibit different sensitivities towards phenolics. These properties can be utilized in functional food development and in food preservative purposes.
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            Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

            Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.
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              Moderate beer consumption does not change early or mature atherosclerosis in mice

              Background Although the consumption of wine in particular has been associated with a lower risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease, systematic reviews differ as to the relative protective effect of beer, wine and spirits. Two previous studies showed that red wine reduces fatty streak formation (early atherosclerosis) but not mature atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Aim of the study To determine whether a moderate beer intake would affect early and mature atherosclerotic lesion formation using control C57BL/6 and apoE-/- mice, respectively, as models. Methods Control C57BL/6 and apoE-/- mice were randomized to receive either water, ethanol, mild beer, dark beer or ethanol-free beer. The level of beer was designed to approximate the alcohol intake currently believed to be beneficial in reducing human vascular risk. Control C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet for 24 weeks, and apoE-/- mice a chow diet for 12 weeks. At the end of the trial period, mice were euthanized and atherosclerotic lesions quantified. Plasma lipid concentrations were also measured. Results The amount of atherosclerosis and average number of lesions in the proximal aortic region did not differ among groups in control C57BL/6 mice (p = 0.32 and p = 0.29, respectively) and apoE-/- mice (p = 0.19 and p = 0.59, respectively). No consistent differences were observed in plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations among water, ethanol and beer groups. Conclusions Moderate beer consumption does not change the development of early or mature atherosclerosis in mice. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of an anti-atherogenic effect of beer. Other potential protective actions of moderate beer consumption such as plaque stabilization, a reduction in plaque intrinsic thrombogenicity, or a reduction in the systemic propensity to thrombosis, remain to be studied.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                September 2018
                16 August 2018
                : 8
                : 3
                : 95-99
                Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, BRAC University , 66 Mohakhali, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
                Author notes

                Corresponding author: Romana Siddique; rsiddique@

                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any - are indicated.

                Page count
                Pages: 5
                Original Research Paper


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