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      Aerobic Exercise Training Adaptations Are Increased by Postexercise Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

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          Carbohydrate-protein supplementation has been found to increase the rate of training adaptation when provided postresistance exercise. The present study compared the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement in the form of chocolate milk (CM), isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO), and placebo on training adaptations occurring over 4.5 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Thirty-two untrained subjects cycled 60 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4.5 wks at 75–80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max). Supplements were ingested immediately and 1 h after each exercise session. VO 2 max and body composition were assessed before the start and end of training. VO 2 max improvements were significantly greater in CM than CHO and placebo. Greater improvements in body composition, represented by a calculated lean and fat mass differential for whole body and trunk, were found in the CM group compared to CHO. We conclude supplementing with CM postexercise improves aerobic power and body composition more effectively than CHO alone.

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          Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.

          Regularly performed endurance exercise induces major adaptations in skeletal muscle. These include increases in the mitochondrial content and respiratory capacity of the muscle fibers. As a consequence of the increase in mitochondria, exercise of the same intensity results in a disturbance in homeostasis that is smaller in trained than in untrained muscles. The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity. These adaptations play an important role in the large increase in the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise that occurs in response to endurance exercise training.
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            Adaptations of skeletal muscle to exercise: rapid increase in the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1.

            Endurance exercise induces increases in mitochondria and the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter in muscle. Although little is known about the mechanisms underlying these adaptations, new information has accumulated regarding how mitochondrial biogenesis and GLUT4 expression are regulated. This includes the findings that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and that NRF-1 and NRF-2 act as transcriptional activators of genes encoding mitochondrial enzymes. We tested the hypothesis that increases in PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 are involved in the initial adaptive response of muscle to exercise. Five daily bouts of swimming induced increases in mitochondrial enzymes and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle in rats. One exercise bout resulted in approximately twofold increases in full-length muscle PGC-1 mRNA and PGC-1 protein, which were evident 18 h after exercise. A smaller form of PGC-1 increased after exercise. The exercise induced increases in muscle NRF-1 and NRF-2 that were evident 12 to 18 h after one exercise bout. These findings suggest that increases in PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 represent key regulatory components of the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by exercise and that PGC-1 mediates the coordinated increases in GLUT4 and mitochondria.
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              Exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis begins before the increase in muscle PGC-1alpha expression.

              Exercise results in rapid increases in expression of the transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. PGC-1alpha regulates and coordinates mitochondrial biogenesis, and overexpression of PGC-1alpha in muscle cells results in increases in mitochondrial content. In this context, it has been proposed that the increase in PGC-1alpha protein expression mediates the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. However, we found that mitochondrial proteins with a short half-life increase as rapidly as, or more rapidly than, PGC-1alpha protein. This finding led us to hypothesize that activation, rather than increased expression, of PGC-1alpha mediates the initial phase of the exercise-induced increase in mitochondria. In this study, we found that most of the PGC-1alpha in resting skeletal muscle is in the cytosol. Exercise resulted in activation of p38 MAPK and movement of PGC-1alpha into the nucleus. In support of our hypothesis, binding of the transcription factor nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) to the cytochrome c promoter and NRF-2 to the cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 promoter increased in response to exercise prior to an increase in PGC-1alpha protein. Furthermore, exercise-induced increases in the mRNAs of cytochrome c, delta-aminolevulinate synthase, and citrate synthase also occurred before an increase in PGC-1 protein. Thus, it appears that activation of PGC-1alpha may mediate the initial phase of the exercise-induced adaptive increase in muscle mitochondria, whereas the subsequent increase in PGC-1alpha protein sustains and enhances the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis.

                Author and article information

                J Nutr Metab
                Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                9 June 2011
                : 2011
                Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Marta Van Loan

                Copyright © 2011 Lisa Ferguson-Stegall et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics


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