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      Characterizing 3D inflorescence architecture in grapevine using X-ray imaging and advanced morphometrics: implications for understanding cluster density


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          Grapevine 3D inflorescence architecture was comprehensively characterized among 10 wild Vitis species to reveal new phenotypic and evolutionary relationships.


          Inflorescence architecture provides the scaffold on which flowers and fruits develop, and consequently is a primary trait under investigation in many crop systems. Yet the challenge remains to analyse these complex 3D branching structures with appropriate tools. High information content datasets are required to represent the actual structure and facilitate full analysis of both the geometric and the topological features relevant to phenotypic variation in order to clarify evolutionary and developmental inflorescence patterns. We combined advanced imaging (X-ray tomography) and computational approaches (topological and geometric data analysis and structural simulations) to comprehensively characterize grapevine inflorescence architecture (the rachis and all branches without berries) among 10 wild Vitis species. Clustering and correlation analyses revealed unexpected relationships, for example pedicel branch angles were largely independent of other traits. We identified multivariate traits that typified species, which allowed us to classify species with 78.3% accuracy, versus 10% by chance. Twelve traits had strong signals across phylogenetic clades, providing insight into the evolution of inflorescence architecture. We provide an advanced framework to quantify 3D inflorescence and other branched plant structures that can be used to tease apart subtle, heritable features for a better understanding of genetic and environmental effects on plant phenotypes.

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          Genetic dissection of sex determinism, inflorescence morphology and downy mildew resistance in grapevine.

          A genetic linkage map of grapevine was constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy based upon 138 individuals derived from a cross of Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon x Vitis riparia Gloire de Montpellier. A total of 212 DNA markers including 199 single sequence repeats (SSRs), 11 single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) and two morphological markers were mapped onto 19 linkage groups (LG) which covered 1,249 cM with an average of 6.7 cM between markers. The position of SSR loci in the maps presented here is consistent with the genome sequence. Quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for several traits of inflorescence and flower morphology, and downy mildew resistance were investigated. Two novel QTLs for downy mildew resistance were mapped on linkage groups 9 and 12, they explain 26.0-34.4 and 28.9-31.5% of total variance, respectively. QTLs for inflorescence morphology with a large effect (14-70% of total variance explained) were detected close to the Sex locus on LG 2. The gene of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, involved in melon male organ development and located in the confidence interval of all QTLs detected on the LG 2, could be considered as a putative candidate gene for the control of sexual traits in grapevine. Co-localisations were found between four QTLs, detected on linkage groups 1, 14, 17 and 18, and the position of the floral organ development genes GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE1, FRUITFULL, LEAFY and AGAMOUS. Our results demonstrate that the sex determinism locus also determines both flower and inflorescence morphological traits.
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            Control of inflorescence architecture in Antirrhinum.

            Flowering plants exhibit two types of inflorescence architecture: determinate and indeterminate. The centroradialis mutation causes the normally indeterminate inflorescence of Antirrhinum to terminate in a flower. We show that centroradialis is expressed in the inflorescence apex a few days after floral induction, and interacts with the floral-meristem-identity gene floricaula to regulate flower position and morphology. The protein CEN is similar to animal proteins that associate with lipids and GTP-binding proteins. We propose a model for how different inflorescence structures may arise through the action and evolution of centroradialis.
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              A multiscale model of plant topological structures

              In applications dealing with plant growth modeling, increasing attention is being devoted to the topological structure of plants. Different models, based on tree-graphs, have been introduced to represent plants. These models assume that the scale of description is fixed. However, this hypothesis is too restrictive for new modeling applications that aim to tackle analysis or simulation of plant growth at different time and space scales. In order to make such multiscale descriptions available to computer applications, we have defined a general methodology for measuring and representing multiscale plant topological structures. This paper discusses the design of a model of plant topological structures and sketches out its general formal properties. The model supports multiscale, attributed and time-varying descriptions of plants. It is intended to be used for plant analysis methodologies and plant growth simulations.Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                J Exp Bot
                J. Exp. Bot
                Journal of Experimental Botany
                Oxford University Press (UK )
                01 November 2019
                31 August 2019
                31 August 2019
                : 70
                : 21
                : 6261-6276
                [1 ] Donald Danforth Plant Science Center , St Louis, MO, USA
                [2 ] Department of Biology, Saint Louis University , St Louis, MO, USA
                [3 ] Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University , East Lansing, MI, USA
                [4 ] Department of Computational Mathematics, Science and Engineering, Michigan State University , East Lansing, MI, USA
                [5 ] United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: Grape Genetics Research Unit , Geneva, NY, USA
                [6 ] Forschungszentrum Jülich , Germany
                Author notes
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                : 28 February 2019
                : 21 August 2019
                : 13 August 2019
                : 06 October 2019
                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Funded by: United States National Science Foundation
                Award ID: IIA-1355406
                Award ID: IOS-1638507
                Award ID: DBI-1759796
                Research Papers
                Growth and Development

                Plant science & Botany
                3d architecture,inflorescence,morphology,persistent homology,phylogenetic analysis,topological data analysis,vitis spp,x-ray tomography


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