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      Alginate sulfate-based hydrogel/nanofiber composite scaffold with controlled Kartogenin delivery for tissue engineering

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          A simple equation for description of solute release II. Fickian and anomalous release from swellable devices

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            Three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering applications: role of porosity and pore size.

            Tissue engineering applications commonly encompass the use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide a suitable microenvironment for the incorporation of cells or growth factors to regenerate damaged tissues or organs. These scaffolds serve to mimic the actual in vivo microenvironment where cells interact and behave according to the mechanical cues obtained from the surrounding 3D environment. Hence, the material properties of the scaffolds are vital in determining cellular response and fate. These 3D scaffolds are generally highly porous with interconnected pore networks to facilitate nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. This review focuses on the various fabrication techniques (e.g., conventional and rapid prototyping methods) that have been employed to fabricate 3D scaffolds of different pore sizes and porosity. The different pore size and porosity measurement methods will also be discussed. Scaffolds with graded porosity have also been studied for their ability to better represent the actual in vivo situation where cells are exposed to layers of different tissues with varying properties. In addition, the ability of pore size and porosity of scaffolds to direct cellular responses and alter the mechanical properties of scaffolds will be reviewed, followed by a look at nature's own scaffold, the extracellular matrix. Overall, the limitations of current scaffold fabrication approaches for tissue engineering applications and some novel and promising alternatives will be highlighted.
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              A stem cell-based approach to cartilage repair.

              Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that involves the destruction of articular cartilage and eventually leads to disability. Molecules that promote the selective differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrocytes may stimulate the repair of damaged cartilage. Using an image-based high-throughput screen, we identified the small molecule kartogenin, which promotes chondrocyte differentiation (median effective concentration = 100 nM), shows chondroprotective effects in vitro, and is efficacious in two OA animal models. Kartogenin binds filamin A, disrupts its interaction with the transcription factor core-binding factor β subunit (CBFβ), and induces chondrogenesis by regulating the CBFβ-RUNX1 transcriptional program. This work provides new insights into the control of chondrogenesis that may ultimately lead to a stem cell-based therapy for osteoarthritis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Carbohydrate Polymers
                Carbohydrate Polymers
                Elsevier BV
                01448617
                August 2021
                August 2021
                : 266
                : 118123
                Article
                10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118123
                34044939
                ca7e5055-f7fe-4d03-b6fc-e326aedfa6c5
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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