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      Promising Aging in Community Models in the U.S.: Village, Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC), Cohousing, and University-Based Retirement Community (UBRC)

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          Abstract

          Aging in Community (AIC) is the preferred way to age. This systematic review identified promising AIC models in the U.S. and analyzed model characteristics and push-pull factors from older adults’ perspectives. Push factors are those driving older adults to leave, while pull factors attract them to stay in a community. We conducted a two-phase search strategy using eight databases. Phase I identified promising AIC models and Phase II expanded each specific model identified. Fifty-two of 244 screened articles met the criteria and were analyzed. We identified four promising AIC models with the potential to achieve person-environment (P-E) fit, including village, naturally occurring retirement community (NORC), cohousing, and university-based retirement community (UBRC). Each has a unique way of helping older adults with their aging needs. Similar and unique push-pull factors of each AIC model were discussed. Analyses showed that pull factors were mostly program factors while push factors were often individual circumstances. Continued research is needed to address the challenges of recruiting minority older adults and those of lower socio-economic status, meeting older adults’ diverse and dynamic needs, and conducting comparative studies to share lessons learned across the globe.

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          Designing and conducting mixed methods research

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            Aging well and the environment: toward an integrative model and research agenda for the future.

            The effects of the physical-spatial-technical environment on aging well have been overlooked both conceptually and empirically. In the spirit of M. Powell Lawton's seminal work on aging and environment, this article attempts to rectify this situation by suggesting a new model of how older people interact with their environment. Goals of the paper include (a) integration of the essential elements of the ecology and aging literature, particularly in regard to Lawton's research, (b) development of connections between traditional theories of ecology of aging and life span developmental models of aging well, (c) acknowledgment of the pronounced historical and cohort-related changes affecting the interactions of older people with their environment, and (d) discussion of the implications of this analysis for concepts and theories of aging well. The model builds on a pair of concepts: environment as related to agency and belonging, founded in motivational psychology, and developmental science. After describing the model's key components, we discuss its heuristic potential in four propositions for future gerontological research and identify implications of the model for future empirical research.
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              A Theory of Migration

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gerontol Geriatr Med
                Gerontol Geriatr Med
                GGM
                spggm
                Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                2333-7214
                12 May 2021
                Jan-Dec 2021
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA
                Author notes
                [*]Su-I Hou, Founding Director, School of Global Health Management and Informatics, PAF-PhD Health-track Liaison, College of Community Innovation and Education, University of Central Florida, 528 West Livingston Street, Suite 401, Orlando, FL 32801, USA. Email: Su-I.Hou@ 123456ucf.edu
                Article
                10.1177_23337214211015451
                10.1177/23337214211015451
                8127739
                ca838cc3-1909-434d-aaf1-ecec83bc1661
                © The Author(s) 2021

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2021
                ts1

                aging in community,village,naturally occurring retirement community,cohousing,university-based retirement community

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