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      Intra-Aneurysmal Thrombosis as a Possible Cause of Delayed Aneurysm Rupture after Flow-Diversion Treatment

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          Abstract

          FD technology enables reconstructive repair of otherwise difficult-to-treat intracranial aneurysms. These stentlike devices may induce progressive aneurysm thrombosis without additional implants and may initiate complete reverse vessel remodeling. The associated vascular biologic processes are as yet only partially understood. From 12 different centers, 13 cases of delayed postprocedural aneurysm rupture were recorded and analyzed. Symptom, aneurysm location and morphology, and the time elapsed from treatment until rupture were analyzed. There were 10 internal carotid and 3 basilar artery aneurysms. Mean aneurysm diameter was 22 ± 6 mm. Eleven patients were symptomatic before treatment. A single FD was used for all saccular aneurysms, while fusiform lesions were treated by using multiple devices. A supplementary loose coiling of the aneurysm was performed in 1 patient only. Ten patients developed early aneurysm rupture after FD treatment (mean, 16 days; range, 2-48 days); in 3 patients, rupture occurred 3-5 months after treatment. In all cases, most of the aneurysm cavity was thrombosed before rupture. The biologic mechanisms predisposing to rupture under these conditions are reviewed and discussed FDs alone may modify hemodynamics in ways that induce extensive aneurysm thrombosis. Under specific conditions, however, instead of reverse remodeling and cicatrization, aggressive thrombus-associated autolysis of the aneurysm wall may result in delayed rupture.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis.

           Adel Malek (1999)
          Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in the developed world and nearly the leading cause in the developing world, is associated with systemic risk factors including hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, among others. Nonetheless, atherosclerosis remains a geometrically focal disease, preferentially affecting the outer edges of vessel bifurcations. In these predisposed areas, hemodynamic shear stress, the frictional force acting on the endothelial cell surface as a result of blood flow, is weaker than in protected regions. Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and phenotype. Arterial-level shear stress (>15 dyne/cm2) induces endothelial quiescence and an atheroprotective gene expression profile, while low shear stress (<4 dyne/cm2), which is prevalent at atherosclerosis-prone sites, stimulates an atherogenic phenotype. The functional regulation of the endothelium by local hemodynamic shear stress provides a model for understanding the focal propensity of atherosclerosis in the setting of systemic factors and may help guide future therapeutic strategies.
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            Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment

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              Remodeling of saccular cerebral artery aneurysm wall is associated with rupture: histological analysis of 24 unruptured and 42 ruptured cases.

              The cellular mechanisms of degeneration and repair preceding rupture of the saccular cerebral artery aneurysm wall need to be elucidated for rational design of growth factor or drug-releasing endovascular devices. Patient records, preoperative vascular imaging studies, and the snap-frozen fundi resected after microsurgical clipping from 66 aneurysms were studied. Immunostainings for markers of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype, proliferation, and inflammatory cell subtypes and TUNEL reaction were performed. Unruptured (24) and ruptured (42) aneurysms had similar dimensions (median diameter in unruptured 6 mm; median in ruptured 7 mm; P=0.308). We identified 4 basic types of aneurysm wall that associated with rupture: (1) endothelialized wall with linearly organized SMCs (17/66; 42% ruptured), (2) thickened wall with disorganized SMCs (20/66; 55% ruptured), (3) hypocellular wall with either myointimal hyperplasia or organizing luminal thrombosis (14/66; 64% ruptured), and (4) an extremely thin thrombosis-lined hypocellular wall (15/66; 100% ruptured). Apoptosis, de-endothelialization, luminal thrombosis, SMC proliferation, and T-cell and macrophage infiltration associated with rupture. Furthermore, macrophage infiltration associated with SMC proliferation, and both were increased in ruptured aneurysms resected <12 hours from rupture, suggesting that these were not just reactive changes. Before rupture, the wall of saccular cerebral artery aneurysm undergoes morphological changes associated with remodeling of the aneurysm wall. Some of these changes, like SMC proliferation and macrophage infiltration, likely reflect ongoing repair attempts that could be enhanced with pharmacological therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Neuroradiology
                AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
                American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR)
                0195-6108
                1936-959X
                January 13 2011
                January 2011
                January 2011
                November 11 2010
                : 32
                : 1
                : 20-25
                Article
                10.3174/ajnr.A2370
                21071538
                © 2010
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