Background/Aims: N-acetylneuraminidine (NeuNAc), N-acetylglutamine (GIcNAc) and acetate are metabolites present in normal urine. In patients treated with aminoglycosides and/or glycopeptides, elevation of these metabolites in urine suggests renal tubular injury. NeuNAc, GIcNAc and acetate are easily detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in contrast to other bioanalytical methods. In the present study, these urinary metabolites were detected using MRS and compared with standard biochemical markers of renal injury in intensive care unit patients treated with aminoglycosides and/or glycopeptides. Methods: 16 patients with clinical and biochemical signs of renal dysfunction were included in the study. Proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from 134 urine samples. The resonance intensity of NeuNAc, GIcNAc and acetate were reported relative to the resonance intensity of creatinine (ct). These ratios were compared with classical parameters of renal dysfunction, such as plasma creatinine and urea concentration, and 24-hour urine volume, by logistic regression and general linear models. Results: Statistical analysis showed that changes in plasma creatinine and urea concentration were reliably reflected in changes in the NeuNAc/ct ratio, and that plasma urea concentration changes also correlated with the acetate/ct ratio; however, the GIcNAc/ct ratio was not related to these measures of overall renal function. Conclusions: NeuNAc/ct may be a useful marker of renal dysfunction in patients treated with aminoglycosides and glycopeptides; by MRS it can be both straightforward and informative to follow the renal function of patients treated with these antibiotics.