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      The Relationship Between Ambient Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Glaucoma in a Large Community Cohort

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          Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study.

          Long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary mortality in the USA. We aimed to assess the relation between traffic-related air pollution and mortality in participants of the Netherlands Cohort study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS), an ongoing study. We investigated a random sample of 5000 people from the full cohort of the NLCS study (age 55-69 years) from 1986 to 1994. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (black smoke and nitrogen dioxide) was estimated for the 1986 home address. Exposure was characterised with the measured regional and urban background concentration and an indicator variable for living near major roads. The association between exposure to air pollution and (cause specific) mortality was assessed with Cox's proportional hazards models, with adjustment for potential confounders. 489 (11%) of 4492 people with data died during the follow-up period. Cardiopulmonary mortality was associated with living near a major road (relative risk 1.95, 95% CI 1.09-3.52) and, less consistently, with the estimated ambient background concentration (1.34, 0.68-2.64). The relative risk for living near a major road was 1.41 (0.94-2.12) for total deaths. Non-cardiopulmonary, non-lung cancer deaths were unrelated to air pollution (1.03, 0.54-1.96 for living near a major road). Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may shorten life expectancy.
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            Development of Land Use Regression models for PM(2.5), PM(2.5) absorbance, PM(10) and PM(coarse) in 20 European study areas; results of the ESCAPE project.

            Land Use Regression (LUR) models have been used increasingly for modeling small-scale spatial variation in air pollution concentrations and estimating individual exposure for participants of cohort studies. Within the ESCAPE project, concentrations of PM(2.5), PM(2.5) absorbance, PM(10), and PM(coarse) were measured in 20 European study areas at 20 sites per area. GIS-derived predictor variables (e.g., traffic intensity, population, and land-use) were evaluated to model spatial variation of annual average concentrations for each study area. The median model explained variance (R(2)) was 71% for PM(2.5) (range across study areas 35-94%). Model R(2) was higher for PM(2.5) absorbance (median 89%, range 56-97%) and lower for PM(coarse) (median 68%, range 32- 81%). Models included between two and five predictor variables, with various traffic indicators as the most common predictors. Lower R(2) was related to small concentration variability or limited availability of predictor variables, especially traffic intensity. Cross validation R(2) results were on average 8-11% lower than model R(2). Careful selection of monitoring sites, examination of influential observations and skewed variable distributions were essential for developing stable LUR models. The final LUR models are used to estimate air pollution concentrations at the home addresses of participants in the health studies involved in ESCAPE.
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              Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma.

              We measured the number and size of retinal ganglion cells from six human eyes with glaucoma. In each, the histologic findings were correlated with visual field results. Five age-matched normal eyes were studied for comparison. In general, there were fewer remaining large ganglion cells in retinal areas with atrophy. In the perifoveal area, however, no consistent pattern of cell loss by size was found. Our estimates suggest that visual field sensitivity in automated testing begins to decline soon after the initial loss of ganglion cells. Throughout the central 30 degrees of the retina, 20% of the normal number of cells were gone in locations with a 5-dB sensitivity loss, and 40% cell loss corresponded to a 10-dB decrease. There were some remaining ganglion cells in areas that had 0-dB sensitivity in the field test.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
                Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
                1552-5783
                November 01 2019
                November 25 2019
                : 60
                : 14
                : 4915
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust & UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom
                [2 ]UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
                [3 ]School of Optometry & Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
                [4 ]Topcon Healthcare Solutions Research & Development, Oakland, New Jersey, United States
                [5 ]Bristol Medical School Translational Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
                Article
                10.1167/iovs.19-28346
                © 2019

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