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      Acute Kidney Injury in a Single Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Poland: A Retrospective Study

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The recent improvements of management of patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) are associated with improved outcome. However, this decrease in mortality is associated with an increased number of children with acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in patients with multiorgan failure. Methods: The report presents a retrospective analysis of 25 cases of AKI (assessed based on the pRIFLE criteria) in PICU within 7 years. Results: AKI was diagnosed in 1.24% of all hospitalized children. AKI percentage duration (as compared to the total hospitalization time) in the children who died vs. the survivors was 79.55% vs. 46.19%, respectively (p<0.05). The mortality rate of AKI patients was 40% which was 4.4-times higher as compared to the total mortality rate in PICU. The final cumulative survival ratio (FCSR) of patients meeting the oliguria criterion (which was met in 48% of AKI patients) was 37% vs. 49% in non-oliguric children. Averaged urine output values in the first week of hospitalization in the deceased vs. survivors were 1.49 vs. 2.57 ml/kg/h, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions: Oliguria should not be considered as a sensitive parameter for AKI diagnosing in children below one year of age. A decreased mean urine output in the first week of PICU hospitalization (less than 1.4 ml/kg/h) should be considered as a poor prognostic factor. In many cases AKI was diagnosed too infrequently and too late.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Pediatric patients with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.

          Critical illness leading to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and associated acute renal failure (ARF) is less common in children compared to adult patients. As a result, many issues plague the pediatric ARF outcome literature, including a relative lack of prospective study, a lack of modality stratification in subject populations and inconsistent controls for patient illness severity in outcome analysis. We now report data from the first multicenter study to assess the outcome of pediatric patients with MODS receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). One hundred twenty of 157 Registry patients (63 male/57 female) experienced MODS during their course. One hundred sixteen patients had complete data available for analysis. The most common causes leading to CRRT were sepsis (N= 47; 39.2%) and cardiogenic shock (N= 24; 20%). Overall survival was 51.7%. Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM 2) score, central venous pressure (CVP), and% fluid overload (%FO) at CRRT initiation were significantly lower for survivors versus nonsurvivors. Multivariate analysis controlling for severity of illness using PRISM 2 at CRRT initiation revealed that%FO was still significantly lower for survivors versus nonsurvivors (P < 0.05) even for patients receiving both mechanical ventilation and vasoactive pressors. We speculate that increased fluid administration from PICU admission to CRRT initiation is an independent risk factor for mortality in pediatric patients with MODS receiving CRRT. We suggest that after initial resuscitative efforts, an increased emphasis should be placed on early initiation of CRRT and inotropic agent use over fluid administration to maintain acceptable blood pressure.
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            Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early marker of acute kidney injury in critically ill children: a prospective cohort study

            Introduction Serum creatinine is a late marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is an early marker of AKI, where the timing of kidney injury is known. It is unknown whether uNGAL predicts AKI in the general critical care setting. We assessed the ability of uNGAL to predict AKI development and severity in critically ill children. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of critically ill children. Children aged between 1 month and 21 years who were mechanically ventilated and had a bladder catheter inserted were eligible. Patients with end-stage renal disease or who had just undergone kidney transplantation were excluded. Patients were enrolled within 24 to 48 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Clinical data and serum creatinine were collected daily for up to 14 days from enrollment, and urine was collected once daily for up to 4 days for uNGAL measurement. AKI was graded using pRIFLE (pediatric modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Kidney Disease) criteria. Day 0 was defined as the day on which the AKI initially occurred, and pRIFLEmax was defined as the worst pRIFLE AKI grade recorded during the study period. The χ2 test was used to compare associations between categorical variables. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare continuous variables between groups. Diagnostic characteristics were evaluated by calculating sensitivity and specificity, and constructing receiver operating characteristic curves. Results A total of 140 patients (54% boys, mean ± standard deviation Pediatric Risk of Mortality II score 15.0 ± 8.0, 23% sepsis) were included. Mean and peak uNGAL concentrations increased with worsening pRIFLEmax status (P < 0.05). uNGAL concentrations rose (at least sixfold higher than in controls) in AKI, 2 days before and after a 50% or greater rise in serum creatinine, without change in control uNGAL. The parameter uNGAL was a good diagnostic marker for AKI development (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62 to 0.95) and persistent AKI for 48 hours or longer (AUC 0.79, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.98), but not for AKI severity, when it was recorded after a rise in serum creatinine had occurred (AUC 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). Conclusion We found uNGAL to be a useful early AKI marker that predicted development of severe AKI in a heterogeneous group of patients with unknown timing of kidney injury.
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              Outcome in children receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration.

              Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) alone or with dialysis (D) has become an important supportive therapy for critically ill children with acute renal failure. Previous reports of pediatric patient outcome either mix CVVH/D with other renal replacement modalities or do not examine severity of illness. The current study examines only outcomes of children receiving CVVH/D using Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) scores to control for severity of illness. Twenty-one patients (mean age: 8.8 +/- 6.3 years; mean weight: 28.3 +/- 20.8 kg) received 22 courses of CVVH/D. Nine (42.8%) of 21 patients survived. Nine (75%) of 12 deaths occurred within 25 days of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. Mean PRISM score at PICU admission and CVVH initiation were 13.1 +/- 5.8 and 15.4 +/- 8.9, respectively. Mean patient weight, age, PRISM score at PICU admission and at CVVH/D initiation, maximum pressor number, estimated glomerular filtration rate at CVVH/D initiation and change in mean airway pressure did not differ between survivors and nonsurvivors. The degree of fluid overload at CVVH/D initiation was significantly lower in survivors (16.4% +/- 13.8%) compared with nonsurvivors (34.0% +/- 21.0%), even when controlled for severity of illness by PRISM score. Mean cost of providing CVVH/D accounted for only 1% of total PICU cost per patient. The pattern of early multiorgan system failure and death, minimal relative cost of CVVH/D provision, and potential for improved outcome with initiation of CVVH/D at lesser degrees of fluid overload are factors that may support early initiation of CVVH/D in critically ill children with acute renal failure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                July 2014
                09 May 2014
                : 39
                : 1
                : 28-39
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatric Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College; bAGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Faculty of Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications; c2 nd Students' Scientific Group by Dialysis Department, Students' Scientific Society Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum; dDepartment of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Polish-American Institute of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków; eNephrology Division, Polish Mothers Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Łódź, Poland
                Author notes
                *Monika Miklaszewska MD. PhD., Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College,, Wielicka St. 265, 30-663 Kraków (Poland), Tel. +48 606 262 484, Fax +48 126 590 663, E-Mail mmiklasz@wp.pl
                Article
                355774 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:28-39
                10.1159/000355774
                24854084
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Paper

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