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      A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research

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          Abstract

          An increasing number of teachers are using flipped classroom approach in their teaching. This instructional approach combines video-based learning outside the classroom and interactive group learning activities inside the classroom. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of flipped classroom studies in K-12 education. Particularly, we put emphasis on revealing and addressing the potential challenges of flipped classroom approach. Fifteen journal publications of K-12 flipped classrooms were analyzed in terms of their flipped learning activities, student achievement, student attitude, and challenges encountered. The results suggested that a variety of pre-class (e.g., online exercises) and in-class (e.g., brief review, individual practices) activities were provided in addition to instructional videos and small-group activities respectively. The use of flipped classroom approach in K-12 education yielded a neutral or positive impact on student achievement when compared to traditional classroom. Mixed results of student attitude toward flipped classroom approach were discovered. Challenges of implementing flipped classrooms were identified and categorized into student-related challenges, faculty challenges, and operational challenges. Based on the suggestions of previous studies together with relevant empirical supports, we propose a rudimentary flipped classroom model and a set of 10 guidelines to address these challenges. Finally, several recommendations of future research are provided.

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          Most cited references39

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          Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment

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            Design-Based Research: A Decade of Progress in Education Research?

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              Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                cklohku@hku.hk
                Journal
                Res Pract Technol Enhanc Learn
                Res Pract Technol Enhanc Learn
                Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning
                Springer Singapore (Singapore )
                1793-2068
                1793-7078
                7 January 2017
                7 January 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 1
                : 4
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.194645.b, ISNI 0000000121742757, University of Hong Kong, ; Pokfulam, Hong Kong
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2305-9227
                Article
                44
                10.1186/s41039-016-0044-2
                6302872
                30613253
                ca938ae9-af07-492c-9ace-27542c913d11
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 3 October 2016
                : 19 December 2016
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                student achievement,student engagement,student attitude,instructional approach,operational challenge

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