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      The impact of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma


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          Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV and occult HBV among newly diagnosed pre-treatment Egyptian lymphoma patients and evaluate patients’ outcomes based on the presence of the viral infections. Methods: The study included 80 therapy-naïve lymphoma patients including 71 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 9 Hodgkin lymphoma disease (HD) in addition to 100 healthy volunteers. HBV screening using HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM and HCV using AB/Ag ELISA and real-time RT-PCR were screened in tested and control groups. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were conducted to diseased patients. Results: Healthy patients showed 4/100, (4%) active HCV infection and 1/100, (1%) active HBV infection and no occult HBV infection. Among NHL patients, 28 were positive for HBV (6 active and 22 occult HBV infection). Occult HBV was also detected in 5/9 HD patients. HCV was detected in (30/71, 42.3%) of NHL patients and in a single HD patient. Ten occult HBV NHL patients showed a mixed infection with HCV. The incidence of both HCV and HBV are higher in NHL than HL patients. After antitumor treatment, complete remission for lymphoma was achieved in 45% of patients. Both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were correlated and significantly associated with patients’ LDH levels. Conclusions: Our findings claim the suggestive role of HCV and occult HBV infections in NHL but not HL patients in comparison to healthy control, suggesting pre-screening of related factors including occult HBV in for potential better therapy response.

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          Most cited references63

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          Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence.

          In efforts to inform public health decision makers, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 (GBD2010) Study aims to estimate the burden of disease using available parameters. This study was conducted to collect and analyze available prevalence data to be used for estimating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden of disease. In this systematic review, antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) seroprevalence data from 232 articles were pooled to estimate age-specific seroprevalence curves in 1990 and 2005, and to produce age-standardized prevalence estimates for each of 21 GBD regions using a model-based meta-analysis. This review finds that globally the prevalence and number of people with anti-HCV has increased from 2.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 2.1%-2.5%) to 2.8% (95% UI: 2.6%-3.1%) and >122 million to >185 million between 1990 and 2005. Central and East Asia and North Africa/Middle East are estimated to have high prevalence (>3.5%); South and Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Andean, Central, and Southern Latin America, Caribbean, Oceania, Australasia, and Central, Eastern, and Western Europe have moderate prevalence (1.5%-3.5%); whereas Asia Pacific, Tropical Latin America, and North America have low prevalence (<1.5%). The high prevalence of global HCV infection necessitates renewed efforts in primary prevention, including vaccine development, as well as new approaches to secondary and tertiary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease and to improve survival for those who already have evidence of liver disease. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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            Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

            Lymphomas can affect any organ in the body, present with a wide range of symptoms, and be seen by primary care physicians and physicians from most specialties. They are traditionally divided into Hodgkin's lymphoma (which accounts for about 10% of all lymphomas) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is the topic of this Seminar. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma represents a wide spectrum of illnesses that vary from the most indolent to the most aggressive malignancies. They arise from lymphocytes that are at various stages of development, and the characteristics of the specific lymphoma subtype reflect those of the cell from which they originated. Since this topic was last reviewed in The Lancet in 2012, advances in understanding the biology and genetics of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the availability of new diagnostic methods and therapies have improved our ability to manage patients with this disorder.
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                Author and article information

                Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
                Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
                International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                19 October 2023
                Jan-Dec 2023
                : 37
                : 03946320231207342
                [1 ]Clinical Pathology Department and Microbiology Lab, National Cancer Institute, Ringgold 68804, universityCairo University; , Cairo, Egypt
                [2 ]Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ringgold 195501, universityAl-Azhar University; , Cairo, Egypt
                [3 ]Medical Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute, Ringgold 68804, universityCairo University; , Cairo, Egypt
                [4 ]Microbiology Department, College of Medicine, Ringgold 158240, universityTaif University; , Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [*]Dalia Y Kadry, Clinical Pathology Department and Microbiology Lab, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, 1 fom elkhalij, Cairo 00000, Egypt. Email: dy.kadry@ 123456nci.cu.edu.eg
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2023

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                : 9 February 2023
                : 24 September 2023
                Original Research Article
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2023

                occult hbv,lymphoma,progression-free survival,overall survival,co-infection


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