15
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Collaboration in pharmacovigilance: lamotrigine and fatal severe cutaneous adverse reactions – a review of spontaneous reports

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Pharmacovigilance presents many challenges, particularly when managing unpredictable, rare conditions, eg, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). Such rare events are often only detected from spontaneous reports, which present their own limitations, particularly during a prolonged global launch schedule. GlaxoSmithKline’s routine pharmacovigilance includes regular reviews of global adverse event (AE) reports and aggregate data from a central safety database. Lamotrigine is one of the several antiepileptic drugs associated with SCARs. After identification of increased rates of fatal SCAR cases with lamotrigine in Japan between September and December 2014, this analysis investigated the global incidence of fatal SCARs with lamotrigine and explored whether known risk factors may have contributed to these cases. Global fatal SCAR cases reported with lamotrigine administration from launch until January 2015 were reviewed for evidence of temporal association with dosing and the presence of risk factors, including comorbidities, concomitant medications, and noncompliance with the prescribing information (PI). Worldwide, the estimated cumulative exposure to lamotrigine was >8.4 million patient-years. Globally, there were 54,513 AE reports for lamotrigine, of which 3,454 (6.3%) concerned SCARs. Of these, 122 (3.5%) had a fatal outcome (attributable and nonattributable to lamotrigine), equating to 0.01 fatal SCARs per 1,000 patient-years. In Japan (estimated cumulative exposure 141,000 patient-years), 17 fatal SCARs were reported (attributable and nonattributable), equating to 0.12 per 1,000 patient-years. Seventy-one percent of fatal SCAR cases in Japan showed evidence of noncompliance with the recommended dosing regimen; in 65% of the cases, a delay in discontinuation of lamotrigine after early signs of hypersensitivity was reported. Despite a number of limitations inherent in comparing spontaneous report data, this analysis highlights the need for adherence to the lamotrigine PI and emphasizes the importance of collaboration between global and local pharmacovigilance departments, to promptly identify and reduce the risk of rare and serious events, such as SCARs.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions : a systematic review.

          The purpose of this review was to estimate the extent of under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to spontaneous reporting systems and to investigate whether there are differences between different types of ADRs. A systematic literature search was carried out to identify studies providing a numerical estimate of under-reporting. Studies were included regardless of the methodology used or the setting, e.g. hospital versus general practice. Estimates of under-reporting were either extracted directly from the published study or calculated from the study data. These were expressed as the percentage of ADRs detected from intensive data collection that were not reported to the relevant local, regional or national spontaneous reporting systems. The median under-reporting rate was calculated across all studies and within subcategories of studies using different methods or settings. In total, 37 studies using a wide variety of surveillance methods were identified from 12 countries. These generated 43 numerical estimates of under-reporting. The median under-reporting rate across the 37 studies was 94% (interquartile range 82-98%). There was no significant difference in the median under-reporting rates calculated for general practice and hospital-based studies. Five of the ten general practice studies provided evidence of a higher median under-reporting rate for all ADRs compared with more serious or severe ADRs (95% and 80%, respectively). In comparison, for five of the eight hospital-based studies the median under-reporting rate for more serious or severe ADRs remained high (95%). The median under-reporting rate was lower for 19 studies investigating specific serious/severe ADR-drug combinations but was still high at 85%. This systematic review provides evidence of significant and widespread under-reporting of ADRs to spontaneous reporting systems including serious or severe ADRs. Further work is required to assess the impact of under-reporting on public health decisions and the effects of initiatives to improve reporting such as internet reporting, pharmacist/nurse reporting and direct patient reporting as well as improved education and training of healthcare professionals.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome

            Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. Both are rare, with TEN and SJS affecting approximately 1or 2/1,000,000 annually, and are considered medical emergencies as they are potentially fatal. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Currently, TEN and SJS are considered to be two ends of a spectrum of severe epidermolytic adverse cutaneous drug reactions, differing only by their extent of skin detachment. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the aetiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Genetic susceptibility to SJS and TEN is likely as exemplified by the strong association observed in Han Chinese between a genetic marker, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502, and SJS induced by carbamazepine. Diagnosis relies mainly on clinical signs together with the histological analysis of a skin biopsy showing typical full-thickness epidermal necrolysis due to extensive keratinocyte apoptosis. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, evaluation of the prognosis using SCORTEN, identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit, and consideration of immunomodulating agents such as high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. SJS and TEN are severe and life-threatening. The average reported mortality rate of SJS is 1-5%, and of TEN is 25-35%; it can be even higher in elderly patients and those with a large surface area of epidermal detachment. More than 50% of patients surviving TEN suffer from long-term sequelae of the disease.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Allopurinol is the most common cause of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Europe and Israel.

              Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare severe cutaneous adverse reactions. We sought to update knowledge on the causes of SJS or TEN with a focus on the rate of allopurinol-associated cases and to identify risk factors for allopurinol-associated SJS or TEN. We conducted a multinational case-control study. In all, 379 patients with severe cutaneous adverse reactions validated as SJS or TEN and 1505 matched hospitalized control subjects were enrolled. Allopurinol was the drug most frequently associated with SJS or TEN, with 66 exposed patients (17.4%) and 28 exposed control subjects (1.9%) (adjusted odds ratio = 18, 95% confidence interval: 11-32). Allopurinol use was greater than in a previous case-control European study. Daily doses equal to or greater than 200 mg were associated with a higher risk (adjusted odds ratio = 36, 95% confidence interval: 17-76) than lower doses (adjusted odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-8.4). The risk was restricted to short-term use (
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2017
                20 July 2017
                : 13
                : 897-903
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Global Clinical Safety and Pharmacovigilance, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK
                [2 ]Classic and Established Products, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK
                [3 ]Clinical Safety and Post-marketing Surveillance, GlaxoSmithKline KK, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Neil Brickel, Global Clinical Safety and Pharmacovigilance, GlaxoSmithKline, 1–3 Iron Bridge Road, Stockley Park, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB11 1BT, UK, Tel +44 20 8990 2582, Email neil.r.brickel@ 123456gsk.com
                Article
                tcrm-13-897
                10.2147/TCRM.S131021
                5530068
                © 2017 Brickel et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article