Objective To analyze the usage of catering software and the creation of recipes by schools, as part of the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students (NIPRCES) 2013-2017.
Methods In each county of the 699 trial counties across 22 provinces in central and western area of China under the NNIPRCES, no less than 10% of primary and junior middle schools were randomly selected according to their catering mode (i.e., school feeding, food packages, and family feeding). School questionnaires were used to collect information concerning the schools and the creation of recipes.
Results From 2013 to 2017, the utilization rate of catering software was 11.7%, 8.0%, 17.8%, 16.9%, and 14.0%, respectively with significant differences (χ 2 = 345.09, P<0.01). The creators of school-meal recipes included schools, the Education Bureau, hospitals and colleges, the centers of disease prevention and control. Differences were observed in the proportion of recipe creators across school type, area, and catering mode, while annual trends also varied ( P<0.01), as indicated by the following proportions: 74.9%, 20.0%, 3.7%, 1.3%, respectively. Food safety was identified as the main factor that needs to be considered when creating school recipes, the proportions of which were 58.0%, 78.4%, 70.6%, and 87.4% from 2014 to 2017.
Conclusion From 2013 to 2017, the utilization rate and the frequency of catering software were both relatively low, and recipe creation was in need of professional guidance. It is necessary to strengthen the popularization of catering software and improve the nutritional knowledge and skills of canteen workers to ensure the quality of school meals.
【摘要】 目的 分析中国 2013—2017 年 “农村义务教育学生营养改善计划” (以下简称 “营养改善计划”) 监测学校电子 配餐软件使用和食谱制定等情况, 为提髙学校供餐质量提供基础数据。 方法 2013—2017 年, 在 “营养改善计划”覆盖的 中国中西部 22 个省 699 个国家试点县中, 分别按照食堂供餐、企业供餐和混合供餐 3 种供餐方式, 随机抽取不少于 10% 的 小学和初中作为调査学校, 每年填写学校调査问卷。 结果 2013—2017 年, 学校 “学生电子营养师”等配餐软件使用比例 分别为 11.7%, 8.0%, 17.8%, 16.9% 和 14.0%, 差异有统计学意义 (χ 2 = 345.09, P<0.01)。学校食谱制定者包括学校、教育 局、医院或髙校、疾病预防控制中心等, 2017 年分别占 74.9%, 20.0%, 3.7%, 1.3%, 不同学校类型、地区、供餐方式食谱制定 者构成比例均有差异, 且随年度变化趋势均有所区别 ( P 值均<0.05)。各年度, 食品安全是学校食谱制定时的主要考虑因 素, 2014—2017 年将食品安全作为主要考虑因素的比例分别为 58.0%, 78.4%, 70.6% 和 87.4%。 结论 2013—2017 年, 学 校电子配餐软件使用比例和使用频率均较低, 学校食谱制定缺乏专业人员指导。应进一步加强配餐软件的推广, 提髙食堂 工作人员营养知识水平和技能, 促进学生餐营养均衡。