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      Effects of Growth Hormone on Cerebral Development: Morphological Studies

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          Abstract

          Growth hormone (GH)-deficient mice exhibit a microcephalic cerebrum with hypomyelination, retarded neuronal growth with poor synaptogenesis, and reduced levels of spontaneous locomotion activity with an indistinct diurnal periodicity. The hypomyelination is found to be due to arrested glial proliferation, suggesting that the action of GH on the proliferation and maturation of both glial and neuronal cells is a necessary precondition of myelin formation, apart from the complementary or synergistic actions of T<sub>4</sub>. In contrast, the cerebral hypomyelination in hypothyroid mice is not related to arrested glial proliferation, demonstrating that thyroid hormones can act independently on myelinogenesis. On the other hand, the activity of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is significantly depressed in hypothyroid cerebella, suggesting that T<sub>4</sub> is indistinguishable for the maturation of Bergmann glial cells. In addition, the developmental expression of hippocalcin in the GH-deficient brain is retarded, suggesting the poor maturation of the neuronal network, because hippocalcin is considered to associate in postsynaptic neural functions and in synaptic plasticity.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-6280-5
          978-3-318-00020-7
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          1996
          1996
          09 December 2008
          : 45
          : 1-2
          : 5-17
          Affiliations
          Department of Physiology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
          Article
          184752 Horm Res 1996;45:5–17
          10.1159/000184752
          8742112
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 13
          Categories
          Session 1: GH, Growth Factors and the Nervous System

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