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      Side effects of oxysterols: cytotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis

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          Abstract

          Oxysterols are 27-carbon atom molecules resulting from autoxidation or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol. They are present in numerous foodstuffs and have been demonstrated to be present at increased levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases and in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, their role in lipid disorders is widely suspected, and they might also be involved in important degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Since atherosclerosis is associated with the presence of apoptotic cells and with oxidative and inflammatory processes, the ability of some oxysterols, especially 7-ketocholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, to trigger cell death, activate inflammation, and modulate lipid homeostasis is being extensively studied, especially in vitro. Thus, since there are a number of essential considerations regarding the physiological/pathophysiological functions and activities of the different oxysterols, it is important to determine their biological activities and identify their signaling pathways, when they are used either alone or as mixtures. Oxysterols may have cytotoxic, oxidative, and/or inflammatory effects, or none whatsoever. Moreover, a substantial accumulation of polar lipids in cytoplasmic multilamellar structures has been observed with cytotoxic oxysterols, suggesting that cytotoxic oxysterols are potent inducers of phospholipidosis. This basic knowledge about oxysterols contributes to a better understanding of the associated pathologies and may lead to new treatments and new drugs. Since oxysterols have a number of biological activities, and as oxysterol-induced cell death is assumed to take part in degenerative pathologies, the present review will focus on the cytotoxic activities of these compounds, the corresponding cell death signaling pathways, and associated events (oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis).

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          Most cited references63

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          Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells.

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            Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.

            Macroautophagy is a dynamic process involving the rearrangement of subcellular membranes to sequester cytoplasm and organelles for delivery to the lysosome or vacuole where the sequestered cargo is degraded and recycled. This process takes place in all eukaryotic cells. It is highly regulated through the action of various kinases, phosphatases, and guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). The core protein machinery that is necessary to drive formation and consumption of intermediates in the macroautophagy pathway includes a ubiquitin-like protein conjugation system and a protein complex that directs membrane docking and fusion at the lysosome or vacuole. Macroautophagy plays an important role in developmental processes, human disease, and cellular response to nutrient deprivation.
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              NAD(P)H oxidase Nox-4 mediates 7-ketocholesterol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

              The mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic action of oxysterols in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis still remain poorly understood. Among the major oxysterols present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein, we show here that 7-ketocholesterol (7-Kchol) induces oxidative stress and/or apoptotic events in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This specific effect of 7-Kchol is mediated by a robust upregulation (threefold from the basal level) of Nox-4, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NAD(P)H oxidase homologue. This effect was highlighted by silencing Nox-4 expression with a specific small interfering RNA, which significantly reduced the 7-Kchol-induced production of ROS and abolished apoptotic events. Furthermore, the 7-Kchol activating pathway included an early triggering of endoplasmic reticulum stress, as assessed by transient intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations, and the induction of the expression of the cell death effector CHOP and of GRP78/Bip chaperone via the activation of IRE-1, all hallmarks of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We also showed that 7-Kchol activated the IRE-1/Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1 signaling pathway to promote Nox-4 expression. Silencing of IRE-1 and JNK inhibition downregulated Nox-4 expression and subsequently prevented the UPR-dependent cell death induced by 7-Kchol. These findings demonstrate that Nox-4 plays a key role in 7-Kchol-induced SMC death, which is consistent with the hypothesis that Nox-4/oxysterols are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bjmbr
                Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
                Braz J Med Biol Res
                Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil )
                0100-879X
                1414-431X
                July 2008
                : 41
                : 7
                : 545-556
                Affiliations
                [01] Nice orgnameUniversité de Nice Sophia Antipolis orgdiv1Faculté de Médicine orgdiv2Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, DSV-DIEP-SBTN France
                [02] Dijon orgnameHôpital Général orgdiv1Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Dijon orgdiv2Service d'Ophtalmologie France
                [03] Dijon orgnameFaculté des Sciences Gabriel orgdiv1Université de Bourgogne orgdiv2Centre de Recherche Inserm U866 France
                Article
                S0100-879X2008000700001 S0100-879X(08)04100701
                cab1d633-ad56-49a0-924f-dec292fe0ba0

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 12
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                Categories
                Review

                Oxysterols,Atherosclerosis,Apoptosis,Phospholipidosis,Inflammation

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