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Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Loni, Western Maharashtra, India

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      Abstract

      Background:

      Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders.

      Aim:

      The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India.

      Subject and Methods:

      Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. The study was carried out during Oct. to Dec. 2011 with population consisted of total 150 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0.

      Results:

      In this study, out of 150 medical students, 26/150 (17.3%) students had abnormal levels of daytime sleepiness while 20/150 (13.3%) were border line. Sleep quality in females was better than the male.

      Conclusion:

      Disorders related to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and alcohol ingestion affected sleep and there was high level of daytime sleepiness. Sleep difficulties resulted in irritability and affected lifestyle and interpersonal relationships.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 24

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      A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale.

       W. Johns (1991)
      The development and use of a new scale, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), is described. This is a simple, self-administered questionnaire which is shown to provide a measurement of the subject's general level of daytime sleepiness. One hundred and eighty adults answered the ESS, including 30 normal men and women as controls and 150 patients with a range of sleep disorders. They rated the chances that they would doze off or fall asleep when in eight different situations commonly encountered in daily life. Total ESS scores significantly distinguished normal subjects from patients in various diagnostic groups including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. ESS scores were significantly correlated with sleep latency measured during the multiple sleep latency test and during overnight polysomnography. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome ESS scores were significantly correlated with the respiratory disturbance index and the minimum SaO2 recorded overnight. ESS scores of patients who simply snored did not differ from controls.
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        How much sleep do we need?

        There is increasing concern for sleeplessness-related risks in modern society. Some recent epidemiological data seem to support the view that many segments of the adult population have chronically inadequate sleep. On the other hand, some experts have claimed that our core, basic amount of sleep is around 6 h per night, and that the rest of our sleep can be easily curtailed, being unnecessary to fulfill any sleep need. However, experimental data on the effects of both acute and cumulative partial sleep deprivation (PSD) consistently point out that sleep restriction has substantial negative effects on sleepiness, motor and cognitive performance and mood, as well as on some metabolic, hormonal and immunological variables. As chronic PSD may have serious long-term adverse health effects, it should be avoided in the general population. In the short-term, the effects of sleep curtailment seem to accumulate linearly, while the effects of long-term PSD should be further investigated, as the few available studies are flawed by methodological weaknesses. On the other hand, there is evidence that extending sleep by 2-3 h beyond the norm produces only marginal benefits for an average individual. Finally, it is underlined that, as large individual differences do exist in the need for sleep, the search for the sleep need may be vain. A somnotypology, taking into account age, gender and the position in both the sleep-alert and the morningness-eveningness continuum, should help in the search for the actual individual sleep need. 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd
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          Insomnia and its treatment. Prevalence and correlates.

          Data for this report come from a nationally representative probability sample survey of noninstitutionalized adults, aged 18 to 79 years. The survey, conducted in 1979, found that insomnia afflicts 35% of all adults during the course of a year; about half of these persons experience the problem as serious. Those with serious insomnia tend to be women and older, and they are more likely than others to display high levels of psychic distress and somatic anxiety, symptoms resembling major depression, and multiple health problems. During the year prior to the survey, 2.6% of adults had used a medically prescribed hypnotic. Typically, use occurred on brief occasions, one or two days at a time, or for short durations of regular use lasting less than two weeks. The survey also found a small group of hypnotic users (11% of all users; 0.3% of all adults) who reported using the medication regularly for a year or longer. If we include anxiolytics and antidepressants, 4.3% of adults had used a medically prescribed psychotherapeutic drug that was prescribed for sleep; 3.1% had used an over-the-counter sleeping pill. The majority of serious insomniacs (85%) were untreated by either prescribed or over-the-counter medications.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Community Medicine (PSM), Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni Dist. Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
            [1 ] Department of Pharmacology, Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni Dist. Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence: Dr. Purushottam A Giri, Department of Community Medicine (PSM), Rural Medical College, Loni, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: drpgiri14@ 123456gmail.com
            Journal
            Ann Med Health Sci Res
            Ann Med Health Sci Res
            AMHSR
            Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            2141-9248
            2277-9205
            Jan-Mar 2013
            : 3
            : 1
            : 51-54
            23634330
            3634224
            AMHSR-3-51
            10.4103/2141-9248.109488
            Copyright: © Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Original Article

            Medicine

            sleep quality, medical students, sleep disorders, sleep habits

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